an act that through ignorance, deficiency, or accident departs from or fails to achieve what should be done [procedural s
a mistake made by a lower court in conducting judicial proceedings or making findings in a case [to compel to conclusion that a manifest has been done "Moses v. Burgin
, 445 F.2d 369 (1971)"] often used without an article [had been to give the jury special interrogatories "K. A. Cohen"]; see also assignment of error
, clearly erroneous
NOTE: Generally a party must object to an error at trial in order to raise it as an issue on appeal.
an error made by a judge in his or her findings of fact which is such that it leaves the reviewing court with the firm and definite conviction that a mistake has been made NOTE: A clear error may or may not warrant reversal.
in this entry used esp. in criminal cases
an error that does not affect a substantial right or change the outcome of a trial and does not warrant reversal or other modification of the lower court's decision on appeal
an error resulting from a party's own request for or encouragement of an action by the court NOTE: A party may not seek relief based on invited error that he or she has induced.
an error that is obvious and indisputable and that warrants reversal on appeal
an obvious and prejudicial error that affects the substantial rights of the parties and that results or probably results in a miscarriage of justice NOTE: Plain error warrants reversal on appeal even in the absence of objection to the error at trial.
an error that affects or presumptively affects the outcome of a trial
a substantial and prejudicial error warranting reversal on appeal