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[J]

  • J.
    1 judge 2 justice 3 judgment
  • J.D.
    juris doctor
  • J.P.
    justice of the peace
  • J.S.D.
    [New Latin juris scientiae doctor] doctor of juridical science; doctor of the science of law
  • Ja
    judge advocate
  • Jacket
    : a standard insurance policy to which other coverage or exclusions may be attached
  • Jackson-Denno Hearing
    see hearing
  • Jag
    (Judge Advocate General) Senior legal officer and chief legal advisor of the Army, Navy and Air Force.
  • Jail
    : a place of confinement for persons held in lawful custody ;specif : such a place under the jurisdiction of a local government (as a county) for the confinement of persons awaiting trial or those ...
  • Jailer
    : a keeper of a jail
  • Jailhouse
    : jail
  • Jailhouse Lawyer
    : a prison inmate self-taught in the law who tries to gain release through legal maneuvers or who advises fellow inmates on their legal problems
  • Jane Roe
    : a female party to a legal proceeding whose true identity is unknown or whose true name is being withheld compare john doe, richard roe
  • Java
    Java is a computer programming language that is designed for use in the multiple-computer environment of the Internet. It can be used to make single-machine applications or be distributed among many ...
  • Javascript
    Javascript is not the same as Java.  Javascript is a Netscape creation that is easier to learn than Java, but lacks some of the speed and portability of Java.  Java is a computer programming ...
  • Jaywalk
    : to cross a street carelessly or in an illegal manner so as to be endangered by traffic
  • Jeopardy
    1 : exposure to or imminence of death, loss, or injury 2 : the danger of conviction that an accused person is subjected to when on trial for a criminal offense see also double jeopardy NOTE: ...
  • Jeopardy Assessment
    : a special immediate assessment of an alleged tax deficiency levied under federal law when a taxing officer believes that delay may jeopardize collection of the claim
  • Jetsam
    : the part of a ship, its equipment, or its cargo that is cast overboard to lighten the load in time of distress and that sinks or is washed ashore compare flotsam
  • Jj.
    1 judges 2 justices
  • Jnov
    judgment notwithstanding the verdict
  • Job
    jobbed job·bing vi 1 : to do odd or occasional pieces of work for hire 2 : to carry on the business of a middleman or wholesaler vt 1 : to buy and sell (as stock) for profit 2 : to hire or ...
  • Job Action
    : a temporary action (as a slowing of work) by workers on the job that is meant as a protest to force compliance with demands compare strike
  • Jobber
    1 : a wholesaler who operates on a small scale or who sells only to retailers and institutions 2 : a person who works by the job
  • John
    : a prostitute's client
  • John Doe
    : a party to legal proceedings (as a suspect) whose true name is unknown or withheld compare jane roe, richard roe
  • John Doe Summons
    : a summons made out to an unidentified defendant who is referred to in the summons as John Doe
  • Join
    1 : to unite so as to form one unit [ the claims in one action] 2 a : to align oneself with esp. in a legal matter [she ed her husband as plaintiff] b : to cause or order (a person) to become a ...
  • Joinder
    [Anglo-French, from joinder to join, from Old French joindre, from Latin jungere] : the act or an instance of joining: as a : a joining of parties as coplaintiffs or codefendants in a suit ;also : ...
  • Joinder Of Remedies
    see joinder
  • Joint
    1 : common to two or more: as a : involving the combined activity or negligence of two or more [a tort] see also joint tortfeasor compare several b : shared by or affecting two or more as a unit [a ...
  • Joint Administration
    A court-approved mechanism under which two or more cases can be administered together. (Assuming no conflicts of interest, these separate businesses or individuals can pool their resources, hire the ...
  • Joint Adventure
    : joint venture
  • Joint And Mutual Will
    see will
  • Joint And Reciprocal Will
    : joint and mutual will at will
  • Joint And Several
    : relating or belonging to two or more parties together and separately [joint and several duties of the partners] see also joint and several liability at liability compare in solido, joint, jointly ...
  • Joint And Several Liability
    see liability
  • Joint And Survivorship Annuity
    : joint-and-survivor annuity at annuity
  • Joint Annuity
    : joint life annuity at annuity
  • Joint Committee
    : a committee made up of members of both houses of a legislature (as for purposes of investigation or oversight) compare conference committee
  • Joint Custody
    see custody
  • Joint Enterprise
    1 : joint venture 2 : an undertaking of two or more parties for a common purpose in which each shares a common interest and an equal right of control (as of a vehicle) NOTE: In regard to a tort ...
  • Joint Legal Custody
    The sharing, by both parents, of the right to make important decisions about a child's welfare.
  • Joint Liability
    see liability
  • Joint Life And Survivorship Annuity
    : joint-and-survivor annuity at annuity
  • Joint Life Annuity
    see annuity
  • Joint Obligation
    see obligation
  • Joint Petition
    One bankruptcy petition filed by a husband and wife together.
  • Joint Physical Custody
    The sharing, by both parents, of the actual physical care and custody of a child.
  • Joint Rate
    : a single rate charged by two or more carriers to transport a shipment of goods over a route
  • Joint Resolution
    : a resolution passed by both houses of a legislative body that has the force of law when signed by or passed over the veto of the executive compare concurrent resolution
  • Joint Sponsor
    A person who accepts legal responsibility for supporting an immigrant with an I-864 Affidavit of Support along with the sponsor. The joint sponsor must be at least 18 years of age, an American citizen ...
  • Joint Tenancy
    see tenancy
  • Joint Tenancy (With Rights Of Survivorship)
    two or more owners share equal ownership and rights to the property. If a joint owner dies, his or her share of the property passes to the other owners, without probate. In joint tenancy, ownership of ...
  • Joint Tenant
    : one who holds an estate by or in joint tenancy
  • Joint Tenants
    A tenancy with two or more co-owners who take identical interests. Joint tenants have a right of survivorship to the other's share.
  • Joint Tortfeasor
    : any of two or more parties held jointly or severally liable for the same tort see also contribution joint liability at liability
  • Joint Venture
    1 : a cooperative business agreement or partnership between two or more parties that is usually limited to a single enterprise and that involves the sharing of resources, control, profits, and losses ...
  • Joint Welfare Fund
    see fund
  • Joint Will
    see will
  • Joint-And-Last-Survivor Annuity
    : joint-and-survivor annuity at annuity
  • Joint-And-Last-Survivorship Option
    see option
  • Joint-And-Survivor Annuity
    see annuity
  • Joint-Stock Company
    see company
  • Jointly
    : in a joint manner ;esp : so as to be or become subject to joint liability
  • Jones Act
    Federal statute passed in 1920 providing that a seaman injured in the course of his employment by the negligence of the owner, master or fellow crew members can recover damages for his injuries. (46 ...
  • Journalist's Privilege
    see privilege
  • Joyriding
    : the unauthorized and esp. reckless taking and driving of another's vehicle for a period of time joy·ride n
  • Jpeg
    A JPEG, pronounced jay-peg, is a one format of electronic graphic image files supported by the Web. JPEG files end with the suffix ".jpg." Other image formats include the Graphic Interchange Format ...
  • Judge
    judged judg·ing [Old French jugier, from Latin judicare, from judic- judex judge, from jus right, law + dicere to decide, say] vt 1 : to hear and decide (as a litigated question) in a court of ...
  • Judge Advocate
    pl: judge advocates 1 : an officer serving under the Judge Advocate General 2 : an officer charged with administering military justice (as by acting as legal counsel or conducting an appellate ...
  • Judge Advocate General
    pl: Judge Advocates General : the senior legal officer and chief legal adviser in the army, navy, or air force
  • Judge-Made
    : created by judges or judicial decision used esp. of law established by due judicial interpretation of statutes
  • Judgment
    also judge·ment [jəj-mənt] n 1 a : a formal decision or determination on a matter or case by a court ;esp : final judgment in this entry compare dictum, disposition, finding, ...
  • Judgment By Default
    see judgment
  • Judgment Creditor
    see creditor
  • Judgment Debt
    see debt
  • Judgment Debtor
    : one who is obligated to pay a debt or damages in accordance with a judgment entered by a court
  • Judgment In Personam
    see judgment
  • Judgment In Rem
    see judgment
  • Judgment Lien
    see lien
  • Judgment N.O.V.
    [Medieval Latin non obstante veredicto] judgment notwithstanding the verdict
  • Judgment Nisi
    see judgment
  • Judgment Non Obstante Veredicto
    see judgment
  • Judgment Notwithstanding The Verdict
    see judgment
  • Judgment Of Acquittal
    see judgment
  • Judgment On The Merits
    see judgment
  • Judgment On The Pleadings
    see judgment
  • Judgment-Proof
    : of or being one (as a judgment debtor) from whom nothing can be recovered because he or she has no property, his or her property is not within the jurisdiction where the judgment was obtained, or ...
  • Judicatory
    pl: -ries [Medieval Latin judicatorium court of law, from judicare to judge] 1 : a court of justice or legal tribunal 2 : a governing body of a religious organization judicatory adj
  • Judicial
    [Latin judicialis, from judicium judgment, from judic- judex judge, from jus right, law + dicere to determine, say] 1 a : of or relating to a judgment, the function of judging, the administration of ...
  • Judicial Act
    : an act deriving from the normal exercise of judicial power within the proper jurisdiction used as a criterion for absolute judicial immunity
  • Judicial Activism
    : the practice in the judiciary of protecting or expanding individual rights through decisions that depart from established precedent or are independent of or in opposition to supposed constitutional ...
  • Judicial Bond
    see bond
  • Judicial Comity
    : comity
  • Judicial Conference
    : a conference of judges and sometimes other concerned individuals (as members of the bar) at which important judicial affairs are reviewed and conducted for the purpose of improving the ...
  • Judicial Confession
    : a confession made in a legal proceeding (as in a trial) [a guilty plea supported by a judicial confession]
  • Judicial Discretion
    : discretion
  • Judicial Immunity
    see immunity
  • Judicial Lien
    see lien
  • Judicial Mortgage
    see mortgage
  • Judicial Notice
    : recognition by the court of a fact that is not reasonably disputable and without the introduction of supporting evidence [took judicial notice that January 1 is a legal holiday] [a motion for ...
  • Judicial Power
    see power
  • Judicial Restraint
    : a refraining in the judiciary from departure from precedent and the formulation of broad doctrine compare judicial activism
  • Judicial Review
    1 : review 2 : a constitutional doctrine that gives to a court system the power to annul legislative or executive acts which the judges declare to be unconstitutional ;also : the process of using ...
  • Judicial Sale
    see sale
  • Judicial Separation
    : legal separation
  • Judicial Writ
    see writ
  • Judiciary
    pl: -ries 1 a : a system of courts of law b : the judges of these courts 2 : a branch of government in which judicial power is vested compare executive, legislature judiciary adj
  • Jumbo Loan
    or non-conforming loan, is a loan that exceeds Fannie Mae's and Freddie Mac's loan limits. Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae loans are referred to as conforming loans.
  • Junior
    : of lower standing or rank : subordinate [a lienholder]
  • Junior Lien
    see lien
  • Junk Bond
    see bond
  • Jura
    pl of jus
  • Jural
    [Latin jur- jus law] 1 : of or relating to law 2 : of or relating to rights or obligations
  • Jurat
    [short for Latin juratum (est) it has been sworn] : a certification added to an affidavit stating when, before whom, and where the affidavit was made
  • Juridical
    [Latin juridicus, from jur- jus law + dicere to say] 1 : of or relating to the administration of justice or the office of a judge [raises a question regarding trial] 2 : of or relating to law or ...
  • Juridical Act
    in the civil law of Louisiana : an expression of will that is intended to have legal consequences [the concurrence of a spouse is a juridical act "Louisiana Civil Code"]
  • Juridical Person
    in the civil law of Louisiana : an entity (as a partnership or corporation) that is given rights and responsibilities compare natural person NOTE: The rights and responsibilities of a juridical ...
  • Juris Doctor
    often cap J&D [New Latin, doctor of law] : the lowest degree conferred by a law school usually after three years of full-time study or its equivalent compare master of laws, doctor of laws, ...
  • Jurisconsult
    [Latin jurisconsultus, from juris, genitive of jus law, right + consultus, past participle of consulere to consult] : jurist ;esp : one learned in international and public law
  • Jurisdiction
    [Latin jurisdictio, from juris, genitive of jus law + dictio act of saying, from dicere to say] 1 : the power, right, or authority to interpret, apply, and declare the law (as by rendering a ...
  • Jurisdiction In Personam
    see jurisdiction
  • Jurisdiction In Rem
    see jurisdiction
  • Jurisdictional Amount
    : the amount or value that a matter in controversy must exceed in order for the federal courts to have diversity jurisdiction NOTE: The jurisdictional amount is set by statute and is currently ...
  • Jurisdictional Strike
    see strike
  • Jurisprude
    [back-formation (influenced by prude) from jurisprudence] : an individual who makes ostentatious show of learning in jurisprudence and the philosophy of law or who regards legal doctrine with undue ...
  • Jurisprudence
    [Late Latin jurisprudentia knowledge of or skill in law, from Latin juris, genitive of jus right, law + prudentia wisdom, proficiency] 1 a : a system or body of law [in the federal ] ;esp : a body ...
  • Jurisprudence Constante
    [French, uniform jurisprudence] : a doctrine in the civil law of Louisiana: a long series of previous decisions applying a particular rule of law carries great weight and may be determinative in ...
  • Jurisprudent
    [Late Latin jurisprudent- jurisprudens, from Latin juris, genitive of jus right, law + prudent- prudens foreseeing, skilled, prudent] : jurist
  • Jurist
    [Middle French juriste, from Medieval Latin jurista, from Latin jur- jus law] : an individual having a thorough knowledge of law ;esp : judge [the state's top violated the U.S. Constitution when he ...
  • Juristic
    1 : of or relating to a jurist or jurisprudence [ scholarship] [ thought] 2 : of, relating to, or recognized in law [all of these considerations are of little or no significance "Wilson v. Lund, 491 ...
  • Juristic Person
    : juridical person
  • Juror
    : a member of a jury [an alternate ] ;broadly : an individual who is summoned but not yet selected to serve on a jury
  • Jury
    pl: ju·ries [Anglo-French juree, from feminine past participle of Old French jurer to swear, from Latin jurare, from jur- jus law] : a body of individuals sworn to give a decision on some matter ...
  • Jury Box
    1 : the usually enclosed place where the jury sits in a courtroom compare bar, bench, dock, sidebar, stand 2 : a box from which the names of prospective jurors are drawn by chance : jury wheel
  • Jury Charge
    : instruction
  • Jury Commission
    : a body of appointed public officers who maintain a jury list and select the names of prospective jurors usually at random by use of a jury wheel NOTE: Jury commissions may be used in some federal ...
  • Jury Commissioner
    : an individual who is a member of a jury commission ;specif : the head of a jury commission
  • Jury Duty
    : the obligation to serve on a jury ;also : service on a jury called also jury service
  • Jury Fee
    see fee
  • Jury Instruction
    : instruction
  • Jury Instructions
    instructions given by the judge to the jury after all the evidence in a case has been presented, either before or after closing arguments, and before the jury begins deliberations. The instructions ...
  • Jury List
    : a list of individuals qualified to be selected for jury duty NOTE: The jury list is compiled in various ways in different jurisdictions, but it is usually based on a list of registered voters or ...
  • Jury Nullification
    : the acquitting of a defendant by a jury in disregard of the judge's instructions and contrary to the jury's findings of fact NOTE: Jury nullification is most likely to occur when a jury is ...
  • Jury Pool
    : the body of prospective jurors summoned for jury duty
  • Jury Room
    : the room where a jury deliberates
  • Jury Service
    : jury duty
  • Jury Trial
    : a trial in which a jury serves as the trier of fact called also trial by jury see also Article III Article VI and VII Amendments VI and VII to the Constitution in the back matter compare bench ...
  • Jury Wheel
    : a revolving container into which the names of prospective jurors from a jury list are placed and then drawn by chance
  • Jury-Waived
    : of, relating to, or being a trial in which the right to a jury trial has been waived
  • Juryman
    pl: ju·ry·men [-men] : juror
  • Jurywoman
    pl: -wom·en [-wi-mən] : a female juror
  • Jus
    pl: ju·ra [jər-ə, yü-rÄ ] [Latin] 1 : law 2 : a legal principle or right
  • Jus Accrescendi
    [Latin, literally, right of increasing] : a right of accrual ;specif : right of survivorship compare accretion
  • Jus Ad Rem
    [Medieval Latin, right to a thing] : a personal right to possession of property that usually arises from a contractual obligation (as a lease) compare jus in re
  • Jus Cogens
    [New Latin, literally, constraining law] : a principle of international law that is based on values taken to be fundamental to the international community and that cannot be set aside (as by treaty) ...
  • Jus Disponendi
    [Latin, right of disposing] : a right of disposal of property [the stockholder's jus disponendi was destroyed]
  • Jus Gentium
    [Latin, literally, law of nations] : a body of law recognized by nations that is binding and governs their relations with each other : international law called also law of nations NOTE: In Roman ...
  • Jus In Re
    [Medieval Latin, right in a thing] : a right of property ownership that is enforced by an action in rem compare jus ad rem
  • Jus Privatum
    [New Latin, from Latin, private law or right] : a right of private ownership compare jus publicum
  • Jus Publicum
    [New Latin, from Latin, public law or right] : a right of public ownership ;specif : the right of ownership of real property that is held in trust by a government for the public [tidal flats are ...
  • Jus Sanguinis
    [Latin, right of blood] : a rule of law that a child's citizenship is determined by that of his or her parents
  • Jus Soli
    [Latin, right of the soil] : a rule of law that a child's citizenship is determined by his or her place of birth see also Amendment XIV to the Constitution in the back matter
  • Jus Tertii
    [Latin] : a right of a third party (as to property in another's possession) ;also : the right to assert the rights of another in a lawsuit NOTE: In property actions the claims of a third party on ...
  • Just
    [Latin justus lawful, merited, from jus right, law] : conforming to law or to the underlying principles of law: as a : conforming to reason or a standard of correctness [ sanctions cannot be ...
  • Just Cause
    see cause
  • Just Compensation
    : compensation for property taken under eminent domain that places a property owner in the same position as before the property is taken see also eminent domain NOTE: Just compensation is usually the ...
  • Just Title
    see title
  • Justice
    [Old French, from Latin justitia, from justus just] 1 a : the quality of being just, impartial, or fair [it is not the province of the court to decide upon the or injustice…of these laws "Scott ...
  • Justice Court
    : justice of the peace court
  • Justice Of The Peace
    :a local judicial official who is empowered chiefly to administer oaths, perform marriage ceremonies, certify documents, and in some states may have additional judicial powers (as to issue summonses) ...
  • Justice Of The Peace Court
    :a local court of limited jurisdiction usu. over minor civil and criminal actions, small claims, and some felony preliminaries which is presided over by a justice of the peace and which usu. follows ...
  • Justiciable
    : capable of being decided according to legal principles by a court [whether the tax laws unfairly burden the poor is not a issue] ;esp : triable in a court [the claim is not because the plaintiff ...
  • Justifiable
    : capable of being justified [ reliance]
  • Justifiable Homicide
    see homicide
  • Justification
    1 : the act or an instance of justifying 2 : something that justifies ;specif : a legally sufficient reason or cause (as self-defense) for an act that would otherwise be criminal or tortious 3 : ...
  • Justify
    -fied -fy·ing vt 1 : to prove or show to be just, right, or reasonable [does not a denial of bail] 2 : to show to have had a legally sufficient reason or cause [a defendant may not set up his ...
  • Juvenile
    : an individual who is under an age fixed by law (as 18 years) at which he or she would be charged as an adult for a criminal act compare minor
  • Juvenile Court
    : a court that has jurisdiction over juvenile delinquency proceedings or other civil proceedings involving minors or juveniles compare family court
  • Juvenile Delinquency
    : a violation of the law committed by a juvenile that would have been a crime if committed by an adult ;also : antisocial behavior by juveniles that is subject to legal action
  • Juvenile Delinquent
    : a juvenile who commits an act of juvenile delinquency compare status offender, youthful offender