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-rode [-rōd] -rid·den [-rid-n] -rid·ing 1 : to prevail or take precedence over [if, as is often the case, federal constitutional principles state statutory or common law "H. P. ...
- P.O.D. account
[Payable On Death] : an account payable on request to an original party or upon the party's death to one or more designated beneficiaries NOTE: A P.O.D. account is one of the few vehicles for the ...
: to influence the composition of (as a political agency) so as to bring about a desired result [ a jury]
- pacta sunt servanda
: agreements must be kept
- paid-in capital
- paid-in fund
- paid-in surplus
: requiring no further payments [a insurance policy]
1 : punishment 2 a : physical discomfort associated with bodily disorder (as disease or injury) b : acute mental or emotional suffering pain·less adj pain·less·ly adv on ...
- pain and suffering
: mental or esp. physical distress for which one may seek damages in a tort action
- pair-or-set clause
: a provision in an insurance policy giving the insurer the option in the case of loss of fewer than all items in a set to restore the set to its value before the loss or pay the difference between ...
passive activity loss
[blend of pal and alimony] : a court-ordered allowance paid by one member of a couple formerly living together out of wedlock to the other not used technically
- palm off
: to sell or attempt to sell (a product) by inducing buyers to believe that one's product is actually the product of another ;specif : to attempt to sell (a product) under another's trademark or ...
: to sell or distribute by pandering [had no protected right to prurient materials "Dunigan Enterprises v. DA for the Northern District, 415 N.E.2d 251 (1981)"] vi : to engage in pandering [counts ...
: one who engages in pandering compare pimp, prostitute
1 : the act or crime of recruiting prostitutes or of arranging a situation for another to practice prostitution compare pimp 2 : the act or crime of selling or distributing visual or print media (as ...
1 : a group of community members summoned for jury service 2 : a group of usually three judges among the judges sitting on an appellate court who hear a particular appeal compare full court
- panel physician
Embassies and consulates which issue immigrant visas have selected certain doctors to do the medical examinations for immigrant visa applicants.
personal automobile policy
1 : a piece of paper containing a written statement: as a : a formal written composition or document often intended for publication [the Federalist s] b : a document containing a statement of legal ...
- paper title
[Latin, one that is equal, from par equal] : the face amount of an instrument of value (as a check or note): as a : the monetary value assigned to each share of stock in the charter of a corporation ...
- par value
: a distinct often numbered or otherwise designated section of a document or writing (as a statute or pleading)
: of, relating to, or being a paraprofessional who assists a lawyer compare clerk paralegal n
- parallel citation
A citation reference to the same case printed in two or more different case reporters.
- paramount title
in the civil law of Louisiana : the signature of a notary public on a document accompanied by a date, identification of parties, seal, or other required elements
: a tract or plot of land
pl: -nar·ies [Anglo-French parcenarie, from Old French parÇonerie, from parÇon portion, from Latin partition- partitio partition] : coparcenary
[Anglo-French, from Old French parÇonier, from parÇon] : coparcener
1 : a release from the legal penalties of an offense 2 : an official warrant of remission of penalty as an act of clemency compare commute 3 : excuse or forgiveness for a fault or offense pardon ...
- parens patriae
[Latin, parent of the country] : the state in its capacity as the legal guardian of persons not sui juris and without natural guardians, as the heir to persons without natural heirs, and as the ...
1 a : a person who begets or brings forth offspring ;esp : the natural parents of a child born of their marriage NOTE: The biological father of an illegitimate child is usually not considered the ...
[Late Latin, from Latin parent- parens parent + -ela (as in clientela clientele)] : the line of blood relatives : the kin of a person by descent par·en·te·lic [-lik] adj
: a civil division of the state of Louisiana corresponding to a county in other states
- parish court
: a court established for each Louisiana parish and having limited jurisdiction over civil and less serious criminal matters
[Anglo-French parlement conference, council, parliament, from parler to speak] 1 a : an assemblage of the nobility, clergy, and commons called together by the British sovereign as the supreme ...
1 : an expert in the rules and usages of a parliament or other deliberative assembly ;specif often cap : an officer of a legislative body acting as adviser to the presiding officer on matters of ...
1 a : of or relating to a parliament b : enacted, done, or ratified by a parliament 2 : of, based on, or having the characteristics of parliamentary government 3 : of or relating to the members of ...
- parliamentary government
: a system of government having the real executive power vested in a cabinet composed of members of the legislature who are individually and collectively responsible to the legislature
- parliamentary law
: the rules and precedents governing the proceedings of deliberative assemblies and other organizations
: of or relating to a parish
[Anglo-French, speech, talk, from Old French parole] : an oral declaration or statement [where the evidence of the gift rests in "Matter of Cohn, 176 N.Y.S. 225 (1919) (dissent)"]
- parol evidence
- parol evidence rule
: a rule of document interpretation: parol evidence offered to contradict or modify a writing (as a contract or will) is not admissible when the writing is unambiguous or was intended to be a final ...
: qualified for parole
[Old French, speech, word, prisoner's word of honor to fulfill stated conditions, from Late Latin parabola speech, parable, from Greek parabolē comparison] : a conditional release of a prisoner ...
: a prisoner released on parole
[Latin parricida killer of a close relative] 1 : a person who murders his or her mother or father or sometimes a close relative 2 : the act of a parricide
- part performance
- partial breach
- partial claim
a loss mitigation option offered by the FHA that allows a borrower, with help from a lender, to get an interest-free loan from HUD to bring their mortgage payments up to date.
- partial defense
- partial insanity
: diminished capacity
- partial payment
a payment that is less than the total amount owed on a monthly mortgage payment. Normally, lenders do not accept partial payments. The lender may make exceptions during times of difficulty. Contact ...
- partial responsibility
: diminished responsibility
- partial verdict
- particeps criminis
[Latin] : one who takes part in a crime : accomplice
1 : involving participation by more than one person or agency 2 : sharing in distributions: a : entitling the holder to a share in any distribution of surplus by the issuing insurance company b : ...
1 : the action or state of taking part in something: as a : association with others in a relationship (as a partnership) or an enterprise usually on a formal basis with specified rights and ...
- participation loan
in the civil law of Louisiana : of or relating to a designated property or to the inheritance of it compare universal
- particular legacy
- particular successor
in the civil law of Louisiana : a successor (as a donee or buyer) who succeeds by particular title to the rights and obligations pertaining only to the property conveyed by the ancestor in title, who ...
- particular title
the plaintiff(s) and defendant(s) in a lawsuit.
: the severance voluntarily or by legal proceedings of common or undivided interests in property and esp. real property : division into severalty of property held jointly or in common or the sale of ...
: one of two or more persons associated as joint principals in carrying on a business for the purpose of enjoying a joint profit : a member of a partnership ;specif : a partner in a law firm ...
- partner in commendam
: an association of two or more persons or entities that conduct a business for profit as co-owners see also Uniform Partnership Act in the Important Laws section compare corporation, joint venture, ...
- partnership agreement
A contract that partners enter into that sets up the terms of their partnership
- partnership at will
- partnership by estoppel
- partnership in commendam
- partnership rollup
: limited partnership rollup transaction
pl: parties 1 a : one (as a person, group, or entity) constituting alone or with others one of the sides of a proceeding, transaction, or agreement [the parties to a contract] [a person who signed ...
- party aggrieved
- party in interest
1 a : to issue a decision, verdict, or opinion [the Supreme Court ed on a statute] b : to be legally issued [judgment ed by default] 2 : to go from the control, ownership, or possession of one ...
- pass off
1 : to make public or offer for sale (goods or services) with intent to deceive : palm off [passing his product off as that of the plaintiff's "W. L. Prosser and W. P. Keeton"] see also unfair ...
- pass-through security
[Latin, here and there] : in one place and another used in citations of cases, articles, or books to indicate that something (as a word, phrase, or idea) is found at many places in the work cited ...
: intense, driving, or overpowering feeling or emotion ;esp : any violent or intense emotion that prevents reflection see also heat of passion
: not involving, deriving from, or requiring effort or active participation [imposed a duty not to interfere] ;specif : of, relating to, or being business activity in which the investor does not ...
- passive negligence
- passive trust
A document issued by competent authority showing the bearer's origin, identity, and nationality, which is valid for the entry of the bearer into a foreign country.
- past consideration
- past recollection recorded
: a witness's written account of a past event prepared at a time when his or her memory of it was fresh ;also : an exception to the hearsay rule allowing admission of such an account into evidence ...
A patch is a quick fix for a part of software that contains a bug or a weakness. Patches can often be downloaded from the manufacturer's Web site.
[Anglo-French, from Latin patent- patens, from present participle of patēre to be open] 1 a : open to public inspection see also letters patent at letter b : secured or protected by a patent [a ...
- patent ambiguity
: an ambiguity in a legal document (as a contract or will) that is apparent on the face of the document and arises from inconsistent or uncertain language compare latent ambiguity
- patent medicine
: a packaged nonprescription drug which is protected by a trademark and whose contents are incompletely disclosed ;also : any drug that is a proprietary
: capable or susceptible of being patented [an idea alone is not ] pat·en·ta·bil·i·ty [pat-n-tə-bi-lə-tē] n
: a person to whom a grant is made or privilege secured by patent [the assigned the patent to his employer]
1 : the quality or state of being a father 2 : origin or descent from a father
- patients' rights
A general statement adopted by most healthcare providers, covering such matters as access to care, patient dignity, confidentiality and consent to treatment.
[Latin patricida, from patr- pater father + -cida killer] 1 : an individual who murders his or her father 2 : the murder of an individual's own father
: of, relating to, or constituting a patrimony [a asset]
pl: -nies [Middle French patrimonie, from Latin patrimonium, from patr- pater father] 1 : an estate inherited from one's father or ancestor [to deprive her and her coheirs of their "Wells Fargo Bank ...
1 : a form or model proposed for imitation 2 : a recognizably consistent series of related acts [found a of discrimination in that company] [a of racketeering activity]
: a person who is destitute and relying on charity ;specif : a person who is relieved of the costs and expenses of a court proceeding because of poverty
1 a : a pledge and transfer of possession of movable or personal property to a creditor which gives the creditor the privilege of satisfying the debt from the property (as by selling it) if the debt ...
: a person who lends money on the security of personal or movable property pledged in his or her keeping or who buys personal property and gives the seller an opportunity to buy back the property
: a pawnbroker's shop
- pay off
1 : to pay (a debt or credit) in full [the loan was paid off] 2 : bribe
: that may, can, or must be paid
: a person to whom money is to be or has been paid ;specif : the person named in a bill of exchange, note, or check as the one to whom the amount is directed to be paid compare drawee, drawer
var of payor
- payment bond
- payment cap
a limit on how much an ARM's payment may increase, regardless of how much the interest rate increases.
- payment change date
the date when a new monthly payment amount takes effect on an adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) or a graduated-payment mortgage (GPM). Generally, the payment change date occurs in the month immediately ...
- payment due date
Contract language specifying when payments are due on money borrowed. The due date is always indicated and means that the payment must be received on or before the specified date. Grace periods prior ...
1 : the act or an instance of paying someone off : bribe compare kickback 2 : the act of paying a debt or creditor in full [would release the lien upon the of the balance]
: a secret or indirect payment (as to a disc jockey) for a commercial favor (as for promoting a particular record)
also pay·er [pā-ər] n : a person who pays ;specif : the person by whom a note or bill has been or should be paid
- payor bank
- payroll tax
: a tax that is levied as a percentage of an employee's pay and is usually paid by the employer
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation see also Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration in the Important Agencies section
Acronym for Personal Digital Assistant. A PDA refers to any small hand-held wireless device that provides computing and data storage abilities. The term handheld is a synonym. Examples of PDAs include ...
: a state of tranquillity or quiet: as a : a state of security or order within a community provided for by law or custom [keeping the ] b : freedom from civil disturbance
- peace bond
- peace officer
: a civil officer (as a police officer) whose duty it is to preserve the public peace
: marked by freedom from dispute, strife, violence, or disorder [the right to assembly] [ possession] peace·ably [-blē] adv
[Late Latin peculation- peculatio, from Latin peculari to embezzle, from peculium private property, from pecu cattle] : misappropriation esp. of public funds
- peculiar risk doctrine
: a doctrine that renders an employer (as a general contractor) liable for injury caused by an independent contractor if the employer failed to take reasonable precautions against a risk particular ...
: consisting of, measured in, or relating to money [ damages]
- pen register
[perhaps from the original use of a pen to mark the dots or dashes used in counting the numbers dialed] : a device that registers the numbers dialed from a telephone compare wiretap NOTE: A court ...
1 : of, relating to, or being punishment [ sanctions] 2 : making one (as an offender) punishable [a offense] ;also : criminal 3 : used as a place of confinement and punishment [a institution]
- penal action
: an action by the state or a private party that is for the purpose of imposing a statutorily prescribed penalty on one who violates a law and that is punitive rather than remedial in nature ;also : ...
- penal bond
- penal code
: a code of laws concerning crimes and their punishments
- penal custody
- penal law
1 : a law prescribing a penalty (as a fine or imprisonment) for one who violates it 2 : penal code
- penal statute
: penal law ;esp : a law that calls for a penalty as opposed to one providing for a remedy for a wronged party
- penal sum
: a sum to be paid as a penalty esp. under the terms of a bond
pl: -ties 1 : a punishment that is imposed on a wrongdoer by statute or judicial decision 2 : a pecuniary sum that by agreement is to be paid by a party who fails to fulfill an obligation to another ...
- penalty clause
1 : a clause (as in a contract) that calls for a penalty to be paid or suffered by a party under specified terms (as in the event of a breach) and that is usually unenforceable NOTE: A penalty clause ...
: to be pending [the action s as to the third party]
: the quality, state, or period of being pendent [the of the contract renewal]
[Middle French pendant suspended, present participle of pendre to hang, ultimately from Latin pendēre] 1 : remaining undetermined : pending [a suit] 2 : of, relating to, or being the basis of ...
- pendent jurisdiction
- pendent party jurisdiction
- pendente lite
[New Latin] : during the suit : while litigation continues [awarded joint legal custody of the child pendente lite] [pendente lite child support]
1 : during the time of 2 : while awaiting : in the time preceding [held in escrow the outcome of the suit] [free trial]
pl: -ries : a state or federal prison for the punishment and reformation of convicted felons compare house of correction, house of detention, jail, lockup
- penny stock
: a branch of criminology dealing with prison management and the treatment of offenders pe·no·log·i·cal [pē-nə-lÄ j-ə-kəl] adj ...
: money paid under given conditions to a person following retirement or to surviving dependents see also defined benefit plan, defined contribution plan
pl: -bras 1 : an area within which distinction or resolution is difficult or uncertain [the public-private ] 2 : an extension of protection, reach, application, or consideration ;esp : a body of ...
: labor in a condition of servitude to extinguish a debt [the holding of any person to service or labor under the system known as is abolished and forever prohibited "U.S. Code"]
: as stated by used to indicate the author of an opinion with which the majority of judges concur
- per annum
[Medieval Latin] : in or for each year [interest of six percent per annum]
- per capita
[Medieval Latin, by heads] 1 : equally to each individual [all property to pass to the descendants per capita] used of a method of distributing an esp. intestate estate compare per stirpes NOTE: Per ...
- per curiam
[Latin, by the court] : by the court as a whole rather than by a single justice and usually without extended discussion [a per curiam affirmance]
- per curiam opinion
- per diem
[Latin] : by the day : for each day [paid per diem]
- per quod
[Latin, whereby] : on the basis of or with reference to extrinsic circumstances [statements are considered defamatory per quod if the defamatory character of the statement is not apparent on its face ...
- per se
[Latin, by, of, or in itself] 1 : inherently, strictly, or by operation of statute, constitutional provision or doctrine, or case law [the transaction was illegal per se] see also negligence per se ...
- per se rule
1 : a generalized rule applied without consideration for specific circumstances [would go even further and apply a per se rule of invalidity to affirmative action programs "Alan Freeman"] called also ...
- per stirpes
[Latin, by familial stocks] : by right of representation [the estate was divided per stirpes] used of a method of distributing an esp. intestate estate compare per capita NOTE: Per stirpes ...
The maximum number of family-sponsored and employment-based preference visas that can be issued to citizens of any country in a fiscal year. The limits are calculated each fiscal year depending on the ...
[Late Latin peremption- peremptio, the act of quashing, from Latin perimere to take away entirely, destroy, kill] in the civil law of Louisiana : the absolute extinguishment of a right that prevents ...
: of, relating to, or creating peremption [the period] [a statute]
[Late Latin peremptorius, from Latin, destructive, from perimere to take entirely, destroy] 1 : permitting no dispute, alternative, or delay ;specif : not providing an opportunity to show cause why ...
- peremptory challenge
- peremptory exception
in the civil law of Louisiana : an exception pleaded by a defendant esp. on the basis that the law provides no remedy for the injury the plaintiff alleges, that the claim is barred by res judicata or ...
- peremptory instruction
: an instruction charging a jury that if they agree to the truth of certain stated facts then they must find for a particular party
- peremptory writ
: entirely without fault or defect: as a : satisfying all requirements [failed to make tender] b : free from any valid legal objection : valid and effective at law [having title to the property] ...
- perfect tender rule
: a rule that permits a buyer to reject goods if they or the tender of delivery fail to conform to contract in any respect [the perfect tender rule is preserved to the extent of permitting a buyer to ...
: completed in accordance with statutory procedure for giving notice and thereby having a status of priority over security interests that are the subject of such procedure at a later date or that are ...
1 : to adhere to and fulfill the terms of [ an obligation] 2 : to carry out or bring about [ the work according to design] 3 : to do according to prescribed ritual or law [ a marriage ceremony] 4 ...
1 : work done in employment [unsatisfactory ] 2 a : what is required to be performed in fulfillment of a contract, promise, or obligation [substituted a new in novation of the contract] b : the ...
- performance bond
1 : exposure to the risk of death, destruction, or loss 2 : the cause of a loss (as of property) [insured their home against fire, floods, and other s] compare risk
for homeowner's insurance, an event that can damage the property. Homeowner's insurance may cover the property for a wide variety of perils caused by accidents, nature, or people.
- perils of the sea
:perils that are peculiar to the sea but are of such an extraordinary nature and power that one cannot guard against them using ordinary skill and prudence [the insurance company denied that such ...
- periodic tenancy
per·jured per·jur·ing : to make a perjurer of (oneself)
1 : guilty of perjury [a witness] 2 : marked by perjury [ testimony]
: a person guilty of perjury
: perjured [ statements] [a witness] per·ju·ri·ous·ly adv
pl: -ries [Anglo-French perjurie parjurie, from Latin perjurium, from perjurus deliberately giving false testimony, from per- detrimental to + jur- jus law] : the act or crime of knowingly making a ...
- permanent alimony
- permanent and total disability
A disability that is expected to last at least a year and keeps an individual from any gainful activity.
- permanent injunction
- permanent partial disability (ppd)
PPD benefits are payable, in most jurisdictions, to an employee who has sustained a permanent, but not complete, disability. Many state statutes have pre-set values for a host of different PPD ...
- permanent resident
Any person not a citizen of the United States who is residing in the U.S. under legally recognized and lawfully recorded permanent residence as an immigrant. Also known as "Permanent Resident Alien," ...
- permanent resident alien
an alien admitted to the United States as a lawful permanent resident. Permanent residents are also commonly referred to as immigrants. Lawful permanent residents are legally accorded the privilege of ...
- permanent total disability (ptd)
PTD benefits are available if an injured employee is permanently and totally disabled from work.
1 : based on or having permission [ occupancy] [a user of the vehicle] 2 : granting permission or discretion (as to the court) [a statute] 3 : not compulsory: as a : allowed or made under a ...
- permissive inference
: permissive presumption at presumption
- permissive intervention
- permissive joinder
- permissive presumption
- permissive waste
: a written warrant or license granted by one having authority [a building ]
- permit bond
-trat·ed -trat·ing : to carry out or bring about (as a crime) per·pe·tra·tion [pər-pə-trā-shən] n per·pe·tra·tor ...
- perpetual injunction
: permanent injunction at injunction
- perpetual lease
-at·ed -at·ing : to preserve or make available (testimony) for later use at a trial by means of deposition esp. when the evidence so gathered would be otherwise unavailable or lost NOTE: ...
pl: -ties 1 : the quality, state, or duration of being perpetual [devised to them in ] 2 a : the condition of a future estate limited in such a way as not to vest within the period fixed by law for ...
: punishment or harassment usually of a severe nature on the basis of race, religion, or political opinion in one's country of origin [claimed and sought asylum]
1 : natural person 2 : the body of a human being ;also : the body and clothing of a human being [had drugs on his ] 3 : one (as a human being or corporation) that is recognized by law as the ...
1 : of, relating to, or affecting a person: as a : of, relating to, or based on the existence or presence of a person see also personal injury personal jurisdiction at jurisdiction b : of, relating ...
- personal bond
- personal deduction
- personal defense
- personal easement
- personal estate
- personal exemption
- personal exemption deduction
- personal expense
- personal injury
: an injury to one's body, mind, or emotions ;broadly : an injury that is not to one's property
- personal injury protection (pip)
That part of an insurance policy, in many cases a no-fault policy, which provides protection against personal injury and related losses, as opposed to damage to your vehicle, up to a specific ...
- personal judgment
- personal jurisdiction
- personal knowledge
- personal liability
- personal property
- personal representative
: one recognized as the representative of another party or his or her interests ;specif : an executor or administrator who may bring or be subject to an action or proceeding for or against a ...
- personal right
: a right that is based on one's status as an individual and does not derive from property
- personal service
1 : a service based on the intellectual or manual efforts of an individual (as for salary or wages) rather than a salable product of his or her skills 2 : physical delivery of process to a person to ...
- personal servitude
pl: -ties 1 : the quality, state, or fact of being a person [the corporation has legal ] 2 : the totality of an individual's behavioral and emotional characteristics [a disorder]
[Anglo-French personalté, from Late Latin personalit- personalitas personality] : personal property at property
-at·ed -at·ing : impersonate
[Anglo-French, minor, small] : petty
- petit juror
: a member of a petit jury
- petit jury
: a jury of twelve persons that is impaneled to try and to decide the facts at issue in a trial compare grand jury
- petit larceny
- petit theft
: petty theft at theft
1 : a formal written request made to an official person or body (as a court or board) [a for equitable relief] [the creditor filed a for involuntary bankruptcy] 2 : a document embodying a formal ...
- petition preparer
A business not authorized to practice law that prepares bankruptcy petitions.
Often, the person who initiates divorce or marriage dissolution proceedings, also called the plaintiff.
[Latin petitorius of a claim to ownership, from petere to go to or toward, seek, request] : made under admiralty or civil law to establish a right to ownership rather than to possession of property ...
: relatively minor in degree [a offense punishable by not more than six months in prison] compare grand
- petty larceny
: petit larceny at larceny
- petty theft
- phantom stock plan
: a form of executive compensation in which an employee is granted units representing shares of stock which are redeemable at a specified future date for the market value of an equivalent number of ...
- physical custody
- physical evidence
- physical presence
The place where a person is actually, physically located.
- physical taking
: a physical invasion or occupation of private property rights by a governmental action (as building a road) that exercises the right of eminent domain and for which just compensation must be given ...
- physical therapy (pt)
Many injured employees are entitled to receive physical therapy as a form of medical treatment to recover from injuries. On forms, or in medical records, you may see a reference to "PT." That is short ...
: a person posted by a labor organization at a place of employment affected by a labor dispute ;broadly : a person posted for a demonstration or protest
- picket line
: a line of people picketing a business, institution, or organization
: a thief who surreptitiously steals money or valuables from the pockets or person of an individual
: work done by the piece and paid for at a set rate per unit
pierced pierc·ing : to see through the usually misleading or false appearance of [the object of summary judgment is to the pleadings and allow a judgment on the merits "J. H. Friedenthal et ...
- piercing the corporate veil
The judicial act of imposing personal liability on otherwise immune corporate officers, directors and shareholders for a corporation's fraudulent or wrongful acts.
: to steal esp. in small amounts and often again and again [accused of ing from passenger luggage] vt : to steal or steal from esp. in small quantities [found ing goods from a store he was guarding] ...
pil·laged pil·lag·ing vt : to loot or plunder esp. in war vi : to take booty pillage n
: one who derives income from the earnings of a prostitute usually by soliciting business compare panderer
pl: -cies 1 : an act of robbery esp. on the high seas ;specif : an illegal act of violence, detention, or plunder committed for private ends by crew or passengers of a private ship or aircraft ...
: a person who commits piracy
Principal, Interest, Taxes, and Insurance
- piti reserves
a cash amount that a borrower must have on hand after making a down payment and paying all closing costs for the purchase of a home. The principal, interest, taxes, and insurance (PITI) reserves must ...
A pixel is the primary unit of color on a computer monitor or in an electronic image.
1 plaintiff 2 public law
-rized -riz·ing [from plagiary plagiarist, from Latin plagiarius, literally, kidnapper, from plagium netting of game, kidnapping, from plaga net] vt : to copy and pass off (the expression of ...
- plain error
- plain meaning rule
: a rule in statute or contract interpretation: when the language is unambiguous and clear on its face the meaning of the statute or contract must be determined from the language of the statute or ...
- plain view
1 : a location or field of perception in which something is plainly apparent 2 : a doctrine that permits the search, seizure, and use of evidence obtained without a search warrant when such evidence ...
: dressed in civilian clothes while on duty used esp. of a police officer
[Middle French plaintif, from plaintif, adj., grieving, from plaint lamentation, from Latin planctus, from plangere to strike, beat one's breast, lament] : the party who institutes a legal action or ...
- plaintiff in error
:a party who proceeds by writ of error : appellant
1 : a diagram of an area of land (as a subdivision) filed in the registry of deeds see also plot plan 2 : a detailed program ;esp : one made under chapter 13 of the Bankruptcy Code that places ...
- planned unit development (pud)
a development that is planned, and constructed as one entity. Generally, there are common features in the homes or lots governed by covenants attached to the deed. Most planned developments have ...
[probably alteration of plot] : a plan, map, or chart of a piece of land with present or proposed features (as lots) ;also : the land represented
[Anglo-French plei plai legal action, trial, from Old French plait plaid, from Medieval Latin placitum, from Latin, decision, decree, from neuter of placitus, past participle of placēre to ...
- plea agreement
: an agreement reached at the conclusion of plea bargaining : plea bargain
- plea bargain
The process in which the defendant and the prosecutor in a criminal case work out a mutually satisfactory disposition of the case subject to court approval. It usually involves the defendant's ...
- plea bargaining
: the negotiation of an agreement between the prosecution and the defense whereby the defendant pleads guilty to a lesser offense or to one or some of multiple offenses usually in exchange for more ...
- plea in abatement
- plea in bar
- plea of abatement
plead·ed or: pled also: plead [pled] plead·ing [Anglo-French plaider to argue in a court of law, from Old French plaid legal action, trial more at plea ] vi 1 : to make an allegation in an ...
1 a : one of the formal declarations (as a complaint or answer) exchanged by the parties in a legal proceeding (as a suit) setting forth claims, averments, allegations, denials, or defenses ;also : ...
in a civil case, the written statements of the parties stating their positions about the case.
past and past part of plead
1 : a delivery of esp. personal property as security for a debt or other obligation ;broadly : the perfection of a security interest in collateral through possession of the collateral by a creditor ...
: one to whom property is pledged
: full and complete in every respect: as a : absolute [ power] b : fully attended or constituted [a session of the legislature] c : including all steps in due order [a proceeding] compare summary ...
- plot plan
: a plan indicating the present or proposed use of a plot of land ;esp : one for a residential lot that indicates the location of structures and other important elements (as a septic system)
A plug-in is a program that enables a Web browser to present non-HTML documents, such as Adobe Acrobat documents or sound and video programs.
pl: -ties : an amount or group (as of votes) that is greater than any other amount or group within a total but that is not more than half ;esp : a group of justices on an appeals court who do not ...
- plurality opinion
: of, relating to, or being a writ issued after the first and alias writs have proven ineffectual
Private Mortgage Insurance; privately-owned companies that offer standard and special affordable mortgage insurance programs for qualified borrowers with down payments of less than 20% of a purchase ...
- pocket veto
: a veto of legislation that occurs indirectly when an executive refrains from signing the legislation and the adjournment of the legislature prevents its automatic enactment (as upon expiration of ...
1 : a particular detail, proposition, or issue of law ;specif : point of error 2 : any of various incremental units used in measuring, fixing, or calculating something: as a : a unit used in ...
- point of error
:a challenge by a party to a finding, ruling, or judgment of a trial court on the basis that it is contrary to the evidence or to the law
a point is equal to one percent of the principal amount of your mortgage. For example, if you get a mortgage for $95,000, one point means you pay $950 to the lender. Lenders frequently charge points ...
- poison pill
: a financial tactic or provision used by a company to make an unwanted takeover prohibitively expensive or less desirable
po·liced po·lic·ing : to control, regulate, or keep in order esp. as an official duty [ the area]
- police court
: a court of record in some states that has jurisdiction over various minor offenses and the power to bind over those accused of more serious offenses
- police force
: a body of trained officers entrusted by a government with maintenance of public peace and order, enforcement of laws, and prevention and detection of crime
- police jury
: the governing body of a Louisiana parish corresponding to a board of supervisors in the counties of other states
- police power
- police register
: a register kept by police of daily business (as arrests)
pl: -cies : an overall plan, principle, or guideline ;esp : one formulated outside of the judiciary [obligated to consider legislative on the matter in their decision]
- policy reserve
: the owner of an insurance policy called also policyowner compare subject
- political question
- political question doctrine
: a doctrine under which a court will refrain from adjudicating a question that is more properly resolved by the other branches of government because of its inherently political nature and not ...
- poll tax
: a tax of a fixed amount per person levied on adults
: the offense of having several and specif. more than two spouses at one time compare bigamy po·lyg·a·mous [-məs] adj
: an instrument that records physiological pulsations ;esp : lie detector poly·graph·ic [pÄ -lē-gra-fik] adj
- Ponzi scheme
[Charles A. Ponzi (ca. 1882-1949), Italian-born American swindler] : an investment swindle in which early investors are paid with sums obtained from later ones in order to create the illusion of ...
1 : an aggregation of the interests, obligations, or undertakings of several parties working together [an insurance ] 2 : a group of people available for some purpose see also jury pool
1 : of or relating to the general public 2 a : of, relating to, or by the people (as of a nation or state) as a whole as distinguished from a specific class or group b : based on or alleged to be ...
: material that depicts erotic behavior and is intended to cause sexual excitement NOTE: Pornographic material is protected expression unless it is determined to be obscene. However, child ...
- port of entry
Place (often an airport) where a person requests admission to the U.S. by the Customs and Border Protection officer.
: the securities held by an investor : the commercial paper held by a financial institution (as a bank)
- positive law
: law established or recognized by governmental authority compare natural law
- positive testimony
: to have possession of
1 : the act, fact, or condition of having control of something: as a : actual possession in this entry b : constructive possession in this entry c : knowing dominion and control over a ...
: one that has possession
1 : of, arising from, involving, or having the nature of possession [ rights] [a action] 2 : having possession [a owner]
- possessory interest
- possibility of reverter
:a future interest in property that is retained by the grantor of a conditional fee or determinable fee and by which property reverts to the grantor upon the occurrence of a particular event or ...
: to put up (as bond) [ bail]
- post mortem
: done, occurring, or collected after death
- post mortem examination
: relating to or occurring in the period following conviction [ review]
1 : all of the lineal descendants of a person 2 : all future generations
1 : the transfer of an entry or item from a book or file of original entry to the proper account in a ledger ;also : the record produced by such a transfer 2 : the actual crediting or debiting of ...
- postnuptial agreement
: an agreement that is made between spouses regarding the division of marital property and that is usually formulated in contemplation of separation or divorce
- postpetition transfer
A transfer of the debtor's property made after the commencement of the case.
post·poned post·pon·ing 1 : to put off to a later time 2 : to place later in precedence, preference, or importance ;specif : to subordinate (a lien) to a later lien ...
- potestative condition
- pour over
: to be conveyed from an estate or trust to another trust ;broadly : to be transferred as a residue or surplus [the remainder of the estate will pour over to a charitable trust] vt : to cause to be ...
: providing for or creating the transfer of property in a decedent's estate or a trust to a pour-over trust [a provision] [a bequest] see also pour-over trust at trust pour-over will at will
- pour-over trust
- pour-over will
- poverty guidelines
The Department of Health and Human Services publishes a list every year giving the lowest income acceptable for a family of a particular size so that the family does not live in poverty. Consular ...
1 : capability of acting or of producing an effect [parties of unequal bargaining ] 2 a : authority or capacity to act that is delegated by law or constitution often used in pl. commerce power ...
- power appendant
- power appurtenant
: power appendant at power
- power coupled with an interest
- power in gross
- power of acceptance
- power of appointment
:a power granted under a deed or will authorizing the donee to dispose of an estate in a specified manner for the benefit of the donee or of others general power of appointment : a power of ...
- power of appointment trust
- power of attorney
:an instrument containing an authorization for one to act as the agent of the principal that terminates esp. upon revocation by the principal or death of the principal or agent called also letter of ...
- power of modification
- power of revocation
- power of sale
- power of termination
- practical construction
1 : the interpretation of the terms of a contract as shown by the performance of the parties that may be used by the court to help determine the intent of the parties ;also : the doctrine that ...
1 : the form and manner of conducting judicial and quasi-judicial proceedings 2 a : the continuous exercise of a profession ;also : the performance of services that are considered to require an ...
also pre·ci·pe [pre-sə-pē, prē-] n [Medieval Latin precipe, legal writ commanding a person to do something or show cause why he or she should not, from Latin praecipe, ...
: to ask for [plaintiff s judgment against the defendants for actual damages] used esp. in pleadings vi : to make a request of a court esp. in a complaint or petition [complainant s for declaratory ...
: the part of a pleading (as a complaint) that specifies the relief sought ;also : a request for relief or some other action by the court
1 a : earlier than : prior to : before [premarital] [prejudgment] b : preparatory or prerequisite to [prehearing] 2 : in advance : beforehand [prepay]
a lender commits to lend to a potential borrower a fixed loan amount based on a completed loan application, credit reports, debt, savings and has been reviewed by an underwriter. The commitment ...
- pre-foreclosure sale
allows a defaulting borrower to sell the mortgaged property to satisfy the loan and avoid foreclosure.
Complete immigration inspection of airport passengers before departure from a foreign country. No further immigration inspection is required upon arrival in the United States other than submission of ...
- pre-packaged bankruptcy
: a bankruptcy plan that has been negotiated between the debtor and creditors prior to the debtor's filing for bankruptcy
a lender informally determines the maximum amount an individual is eligible to borrow. This is not a guaranty of a loan.
[Middle French preambule, from Medieval Latin preambulum, from Late Latin, neuter of preambulus walking in front of, from Latin prae- + ambulare to walk] : an introductory statement (as to a ...
- prebankruptcy planning
The arrangement (or rearrangement) of a debtor's property to allow the debtor to take maximum advantage of exemptions. (Prebankruptcy planning typically includes converting nonexempt assets into ...
: depending on the will or pleasure of another [a temporary and office] see also precarious possession at possession
- precarious possession
: expressing a wish or desire but not creating a legal obligation or affirmative duty [a remark] [the words] NOTE: When interpreting wills, courts will look to whether a direction is precatory or ...
[Middle French, from Latin praecedent- praecedens, present participle of praecedere to go ahead of, come before] : prior in time, order, arrangement, or significance see also condition precedent at ...
: relating to, having the character of, or constituting precedent [is of no value] [has no effect in this jurisdiction]
var of praecipe
pre·clud·ed pre·clud·ing : to prevent or exclude by necessary consequence [the requirement of a marriage ceremony s the creation of common-law marriages in this jurisdiction]: as ...
: inclined or intended to injure competitors by unfair means [subject to antitrust liability for conduct "National Law Journal"] [ bidding]
- predatory lending
abusive lending practices that include a mortgage loan to someone who does not have the ability to repay. It also pertains to repeated refinancing of a loan charging high interest and fees each time.
- predatory pricing
: the practice of pricing goods below cost and incurring a loss in order to reduce or eliminate competition NOTE: Predatory pricing constitutes an antitrust violation.
-ceased -ceas·ing : to die before (another person) [when the child s the parent]
- predecessor in interest
: a party with whom another is in privity ;specif : a party in a previously related civil case who was in a similar position and dealt with similar issues and facts as a party in the current case ...
[Medieval Latin praedialis, from Latin praedium landed property, from praed- praes bondsman, from prae- before + vad- vas surety] in the civil law of Louisiana : of, consisting of, or relating to ...
- predial servitude
-cat·ed -cat·ing : to set or ground on something : find a basis for usually used with on [if Mary's claim is predicated simply on John's duty of support "W. M. McGovern, Jr. et al."]
- predicate fact
- predictive variables
The variables that are part of the formula comprising elements of a credit-scoring model. These variables are used to predict a borrower's future credit performance.
-posed -pos·ing : to dispose or incline in advance ;specif : to make ready and willing to commit a crime [have been predisposed to engage in criminal behavior "W. R. LaFave and J. H. Israel"] ...
1 a : to acquire (land) by preemption b : to seize upon to the exclusion of others : take for oneself [a senior user of a trademark could not use of the mark in remote geographical markets "Mesa ...
[Medieval Latin praeemption- praeemptio previous purchase, from praeemere to buy before] 1 a : the right of purchasing before others : preemptive right b : a right to purchase a tract of public ...
: of or relating to preemption
- preemptive right
1 : right of first refusal 2 : the right of a shareholder to buy shares of newly issued stock in proportion to existing holdings before a public offering is made in order to prevent dilution of ...
- preexisting duty rule
: a common-law rule of contracts: a party's offer of a performance already required under an existing contract is insufficient consideration for modification of the contract NOTE: This rule is not ...
pre·ferred pre·fer·ring 1 : to give (a creditor or debt) priority or preference [any preferred charges such as child support or alimony "In re Smiley, 427 P.2d 179 (1967)"] 2 : to ...
1 : the right to prior payment of a debt [with over the creditors of the heirs or legatees "Louisiana Civil Code"] 2 : the transfer of an insolvent debtor's interest in property to a creditor for an ...
- preference immigration
A system for determining which and when people can immigrate to the United States within the limits of immigration set by Congress. In family immigration preference is based on the status of the ...
- preference or preferential debt payment
A debt payment made to a creditor in the 90
- preference system
The nine categories since fiscal year 1992 among which the family-sponsored and employment-based immigrant preference visas are distributed. The family-sponsored preferences are: 1) unmarried sons and ...
1 : of or constituting a preference [a transfer] 2 : giving preference to union members esp. in hiring [a shop] 3 : showing preference [these creditors may obtain treatment]
1 : advancement or promotion in office or station 2 : the act of preferring (as charges) [without of allegations]
- preferred risk
: an insured that an insurer deems has a lower than average chance of loss and that usually may pay a lower premium [because of the past accidents, he was not a preferred risk]
- preferred share
: a share of preferred stock
- preferred stock
: preparatory to a hearing [a brief] [a stipulation]
: occurring before the rendering of judgment [a attachment]
[Old French, from Latin praejudicium previous judgment, damage, from prae- before + judicium judgment] 1 : injury or detriment to one's legal rights or claims (as from the action of another): as a : ...
: resulting from or having a prejudice or bias for or esp. against [alleged that the trial judge was ]
: having the effect of prejudice: as a : tending to injure or impair rights [such a transfer would be to other creditors] b : leading to a decision or judgment on an improper basis [the evidence ...
- prejudicial error
: coming before and usually serving as a temporary or intermediate step to something [ negotiations] [a payment plan] preliminary n
- preliminary examination
: preliminary hearing at hearing
- preliminary hearing
- preliminary injunction
- premarital agreement
An agreement entered into before marriage that sets forth each party's rights and responsibilities should the marriage terminate by death or divorce. Also called a prenuptial agreement.
-tat·ed -tat·ing vt : to think about or consider beforehand [must the killing and deliberate about it "W. R. LaFave and A. W. Scott, Jr."] vi : to think or consider beforehand
: having been thought about at some point before being committed [any killing] ;also : having been formed prior to commission of the act [with malice] compare deliberate
: an act or instance of premeditating ;specif : consideration or planning of an act beforehand [designed so that it requires to tamper with it] [murder in the first degree is the killing of a human ...
1 : matters previously stated: as a : the preliminary part of a deed that includes a description of the real estate and that precedes the habendum b : the preliminary part of a bill in equity that ...
- premises liability
1 : the difference between the face value or par value of a security and its market price when the latter is greater compare discount 2 : the price paid for an insurance contract equal to the cost ...
- prenuptial agreement
: antenuptial agreement
pre·paid pre·pay·ing : to pay or pay the charge on in advance (as of date due or maturity date) [no penalty for ing your student loan] pre·pay·ment n
payment of the mortgage loan before the scheduled due date; may be Subject to a prepayment penalty.
- prepayment penalty
a fee charged to a homeowner who pays one or more monthly payments before the due date. It can also apply to principal reduction payments.
- prepayment penalty mortgage (ppm)
a type of mortgage that requires the borrower to pay a penalty for prepayment, partial payment of principal or for repaying the entire loan within a certain time period. A partial payment is generally ...
- preponderance of the evidence
;also : the evidence meeting this standard [plaintiffs must show by a preponderance of the evidence that defendant's negligence proximately caused the injuries] compare clear and convincing, ...
-at·ed -at·ing : to have greater credibility or convincing weight : have an outweighing effect [the evidence either was evenly balanced or preponderated in favor of the state "Weston v. ...
- prerogative writ
pre·scribed pre·scrib·ing vi 1 : to claim title or a right to something (as an easement) by prescription [a precarious possessor cannot against the owner] 2 in the civil law of ...
[partly from Middle French prescription establishment of a claim, from Late Latin praescription- praescriptio, from Latin, act of writing at the beginning, order, from praescribere to write at the ...
- prescription of nonuse
1 : serving to prescribe [ rules] 2 : acquired by, founded on, or constituting prescription [a right] [a longer period]
- prescriptive easement
1 : to lay before a court as an object of consideration [ a complaint] [ed a defense of insanity] 2 : to make a presentment of (an instrument) pre·sen·ta·tion ...
- present recollection refreshed
: a rule of evidence allowing the use of a writing to jog the memory of a witness and enable the witness to testify about things newly remembered called also present recollection revived compare past ...
- present sense impression
: an out-of-court statement that describes or explains an event or condition and that was made during or immediately after the time the event or condition was perceived ;also : an exception to the ...
- presentence investigation
: an investigation made by a probation officer in preparing a presentence report
- presentence report
: a report prepared by a probation officer upon conviction of a defendant that assists the sentencing court in imposing an appropriate sentence NOTE: The information contained in a presentence report ...
- presenting bank
1 : the act of presenting to an authority a formal statement of a matter to be dealt with ;specif : the notice or accusation of an offense by a grand jury on the initiative of the jury members or on ...
: the words, statements, or document (as a deed) under consideration [know all persons by these ]
pre·served pre·serv·ing 1 : to keep safe from injury, harm, or destruction [expenses necessary to the property] 2 a : to keep valid, intact, or in existence (as pending a proceeding) ...
pre·sid·ed pre·sid·ing 1 : to exercise guidance, direction, or control 2 : to occupy the place of authority : direct or regulate proceedings as chief officer
pl: -cies 1 a : the office of president b : the office of president of the U.S. ;also : the American governmental institution comprising the office of president and various associated ...
1 : an official chosen to preside over a meeting or assembly 2 : an appointed governor of a subordinate political unit 3 : the chief officer of an organization (as a corporation or institution) ...
- presidential government
: a system of government in which the president is constitutionally independent of the legislature
pre·sumed pre·sum·ing : to suppose to be true without proof or before inquiry : accept as a presumption [must the defendant is innocent]
- presumed damages
: an inference as to the existence of a fact not certainly known that the law requires to be drawn from the known or proven existence of some other fact conclusive presumption : a presumption that ...
- presumption of abuse
see means test
- presumption of fact
- presumption of innocence
- presumption of intent
- presumption of law
- presumption of survivorship
1 : based on presumption : presumed to have occurred [a violation of law] 2 : giving grounds for reasonable opinion or belief pre·sump·tive·ly adv
- presumptive evidence
- presumptive heir
- presumptive sentence
: existing or occurring before the assessment or deduction of taxes [ income] [ contributions]
- pretermination hearing
: the act or an instance of pretermitting
-mit·ted -mit·ting [Latin praetermittere, from praeter by, past + mittere to let go, send] : to let pass without mention or notice see also pretermitted heir at heir
- pretext arrest
- pretextual arrest
: pretext arrest at arrest
: existing or occurring before trial [a motion] [a detainee]
- pretrial conference
: a proceeding attended by the parties to an action and a judge or magistrate and held at a party's request or on the judge's initiative for the purpose of focusing the issues, making discovery, ...
- pretrial order
1 : to obtain substantially the relief or action sought in a lawsuit 2 : to be frequent or predominant [the ing rate]
- preventive detention
: detention of a defendant awaiting trial for the purpose of preventing further misconduct or protecting an individual or the public
- price range
the high and low amount a buyer is willing to pay for a home.
: the usually illegal setting of prices artificially (as by producers) contrary to free market operations see also horizontal price-fixing, vertical price-fixing
- prima facie
[Latin] : at first view : on first appearance absent other information or evidence [guidelines which would prima facie accredit new entrance examinations as nondiscriminatory "S. L. Lynch"] compare ...
- prima facie case
- prima facie evidence
1 : of first rank, value, or importance 2 : belonging to the first group or order in successive divisions, combinations, or ramifications pri·mar·i·ly [prī-mer-ə-lē] ...
- primary beneficiary
- primary boycott
: an organized effort of a labor union and its members to discourage consumers from buying the products of a particular employer compare secondary boycott
- primary evidence
- primary insurance coverage
: coverage under an insurance policy in which the insurer is immediately liable upon the happening of a covered event
- primary jurisdiction
- primary liability
- primary market
: the market in which newly issued securities are sold compare secondary market
- primary strike
1 : prime rate 2 : general contractor
- prime contractor
: general contractor
- prime interest rate
: prime rate
- prime minister
1 : the chief minister of a ruler or state 2 : the official head of a cabinet or ministry ;esp : the chief executive of a parliamentary government prime min·is·te·ri·al ...
- prime rate
: an interest rate formally announced by a bank to be the lowest available at a particular time to its most creditworthy customers called also prime prime interest rate
1 : the state of being the firstborn of the children of the same parents 2 : exclusive right of inheritance ;specif : a right to take all the real property of an estate belonging under English law ...
1 : being the main or most important, consequential, or influential [their place of business] [the obligor] 2 : of, relating to, or constituting principal or a principal [the amount of the loan]
- principal alien
The alien who applies for immigrant status and from whom another alien may derive lawful status under immigration law or regulations (usually spouses and minor unmarried children).
- principal applicant
The person named in the petition. For example, an American citizen may file a petition for his married daughter to immigrate to the United States. His daughter will be the principal applicant, and her ...
- principal contract
- principal in the first degree
- principal in the second degree
- principal register
Primary trademark register of the USPTO. When a mark has been registered on the Principal Register, the mark is entitled to all the rights provided by federal law.
- principal, interest, taxes, and insurance (piti)
the four elements of a monthly mortgage payment; payments of principal and interest go directly towards repaying the loan while the portion that covers taxes and insurance (homeowner's and mortgage, ...
1 : earlier in time or order 2 : taking precedence (as in importance) [a lien]
- prior art
: the processes, devices, and modes of achieving the end of an alleged invention that were known or knowable by due diligence before and at the date of the invention ;also : the knowledge or ...
- prior consistent statement
: a witness's statement made out of court prior to testifying that is consistent with the witness's testimony compare prior inconsistent statement NOTE: A prior consistent statement may be offered as ...
- prior inconsistent statement
: a witness's statement made out of court prior to testifying that is inconsistent with the witness's testimony and that may be offered to impeach the witness's credibility compare prior consistent ...
- prior restraint
: governmental prohibition on expression (esp. by publication) before the expression actually takes place see also Near v. Minnesota and New York Times Co. v. United States in the Important Cases ...
pl: -ties : precedence in exercise of rights in the same subject matter [secured interests have over unsecured ones]
- priority action
A letter in which an examining attorney sets forth specific requirements that the applicant must meet before an application can be approved for publication.
- priority claim
An unsecured claim that is entitled to be paid ahead of other unsecured claims that are not entitled to priority status. Priority refers to the order in which these unsecured claims are to be ...
- priority date
The priority date decides a person's turn to apply for an immigrant visa. In family immigration the priority date is the date when the petition was filed at a U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services ...
: an institution usually under state control for confinement of persons serving sentences for serious crimes compare house of correction, house of detention, jail, lockup, penitentiary
- prison camp
: a camp for the confinement of reasonably trustworthy prisoners usually employed on government projects
: a person deprived of liberty and kept under involuntary restraint, confinement, or custody ;esp : one under arrest, awaiting trial, on trial, or serving a prison sentence
: freedom from unauthorized intrusion : state of being let alone and able to keep certain esp. personal matters to oneself see also expectation of privacy, invasion of privacy privacy interest at ...
- privacy interest
1 a : intended for or restricted to the use of a particular person or group or class of persons : not available to the public [a park] b : not related to, controlled by, or deriving from the state ...
- private attorney general doctrine
: an equitable doctrine allowing the recovery of attorney's fees to a party whose suit has benefited a large number of people, requires private enforcement, and is of societal importance
- private bill
- private detective
: private investigator
- private eye
: private investigator
- private foundation
: a tax-exempt foundation operated exclusively for humanitarian (as religious, charitable, educational, or scientific) purposes whose earnings do not benefit any private individual and which does not ...
- private investigator
: a person not a member of a police force who is licensed to do detective work (as investigation of suspected wrongdoing or searching for missing persons)
- private law
: a branch of law concerned with private persons, property, and relationships compare public law
- private letter ruling
: a letter from the Internal Revenue Service to an individual taxpayer setting out the agency's interpretation of the tax rules relating to a specific situation or transaction proposed by the ...
- private mortgage insurance
: insurance that a lender may require a borrower to purchase to cover losses in the event of default of a residential loan esp. when the borrower is giving the lender a mortgage on property in which ...
- private mortgage insurance (pmi)
insurance purchased by a buyer to protect the lender in the event of default. The cost of mortgage insurance is usually added to the monthly payment. Mortgage insurance is generally maintained until ...
- private nuisance
- private offering
: the sale of an issue of securities directly by the issuer to one or a few large investors without any public offering called also private placement compare public offering NOTE: A private offering ...
- private person
1 : an individual who is not a public figure or in the military services 2 in the civil law of Louisiana : a juridical person governed by private law
- private sale
- private school
A school maintained by private individuals, a religious organization, or a corporation, not at public expense. Open only to pupils selected and admitted by the proprietors or to pupils of a certain ...
- private signature
in the civil law of Louisiana : a signature made on a writing (as an instrument or will) that is not witnessed or notarized under private signature : executed outside of the presence of a notary ...
- private treaty
: a sale of property on terms determined between the buyer and the seller [got better prices by private treaty than his neighbors did at auction]
-tized -tiz·ing : to make private ;esp : to change (as a business or industry) from public to private control or ownership pri·va·ti·za·tion ...
[Latin privilegium law affecting a specific person, special right, from privus private + leg- lex law] 1 : a right, license, or exemption from duty or liability granted as a special benefit, ...
- privilege against self-incrimination
: not subject to the usual rules or penalties because of some special circumstance ;esp : not subject to disclosure esp. in an adjudicative proceeding
- privileged communication
1 : confidential communication 2 a : a defamatory communication that does not expose the party making it to the liability that would follow from it if not privileged called also absolutely ...
- privileges and immunities clause
often cap P&I&C 1 : a clause in Article IV of the U.S. Constitution stating that the citizens of each state of the U.S. shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of citizens of ...
pl: -ties [Old French privité privacy, secret, from Medieval Latin privitat- privitas, from Latin privus private] 1 : the direct connection or relationship between parties to a contract or ...
pl: priv·ies [Anglo-French privé, from Old French, intimate, confidant, from privé intimate, familiar, from Latin privatus private] : one having privity ;esp : one who acquires an ...
1 : property (as a ship) lawfully captured in time of war 2 : the wartime capture of a ship and its cargo at sea
- pro bono
[Latin pro bono publico for the public good] : being, involving, or doing legal work donated esp. for the public good [pro bono counsel]
- pro confesso
[Latin] : as though confessed [the plaintiff's pleadings were taken pro confesso since the defendant did not appear] see also decree pro confesso at decree
- pro forma
[Latin, for the sake of form] 1 : made or carried out in a perfunctory manner or as a formality 2 : provided or made in advance to describe items or projections [a pro forma invoice]
- pro hac vice
[Latin] : for this occasion [a motion to admit the attorney pro hac vice as counsel of record "Huff v. State, 622 So. 2d 982 (1993)"] used esp. when an out-of-state attorney is allowed to practice in ...
- pro rata
[Latin] : proportionately according to an exactly calculable factor (as share or liability) pro rata adj
- pro rata clause
: a clause in an insurance policy limiting an insurer's liability for a loss to a proportionate share in relation to coverage collectible from other insurers for the same loss called also pro rata ...
- pro se
[Latin] : on one's own behalf : without an attorney [a defendant's right to proceed pro se] [a pro se action]
- pro tanto
[Late Latin] : for so much : to a certain extent [the obligation is pro tanto discharged "Uniform Commercial Code"] [entered into a pro tanto release pending the appeal]
- pro tem
: pro tempore often styled with a terminal period in legal contexts [Justice pro tem.]
- pro tempore
[Latin] : for the time being : chosen or appointed to occupy a position either temporarily or in the absence of a regularly elected official [an administrator pro tempore]
- probable cause
- probable cause hearing
: things conclusively established or proved compare allegata
[Latin probatum, neuter of probatus, past participle of probare to test, approve, prove] 1 a : the process of proving in a court of competent jurisdiction (as a probate court) that an instrument is ...
- probate court
: a court that has jurisdiction over the probate of wills and administration of estates and sometimes over the affairs of minors and persons adjudged incompetent compare orphans' court
- probate estate
[Middle French, critical examination and evaluation, from Latin probation- probatio, from probare to test, approve, prove] 1 a : subjection to a period of evaluation and possible termination at the ...
- probation officer
: an officer appointed to investigate, report on, and supervise the conduct of convicted offenders on probation
: not precluding probation : punishable by probation [a offense]
: one (as an offender or employee) who is on probation
1 : serving or tending to prove [evidence of the use of an alias by a defendant is often of nothing "Case & Comment"] compare prejudicial 2 : of or relating to proof [evidence with value]
[Latin, ablative of procedendum, gerund of procedere to proceed] : an extraordinary writ ordering a lower court to proceed to or execute a judgment
: of or relating to procedure [sentence reversed as result of error in sentencing "National Law Journal"] compare substantive pro·ce·dur·al·ly adv
- procedural default
: a failure to follow state appellate procedure (as in the exhaustion of state remedies) that bars federal esp. habeas corpus review of a case in the absence of a showing of cause for and prejudice ...
- procedural due process
: due process
- procedural law
: law that prescribes the procedures and methods for enforcing rights and duties and for obtaining redress (as in a suit) and that is distinguished from law that creates, defines, or regulates rights ...
- procedural unconscionability
: unconscionability that derives from the process of making a contract rather than from inherent unfairness or unreasonableness in the terms of the contract compare substantive unconscionability ...
1 : one or more methods or steps for the enforcement or administration of rights, duties, justice, or laws [civil ] [police ] compare procedural law, substantive law 2 : a particular and esp. ...
1 : a particular step or series of steps in the enforcement, adjudication, or administration of rights, remedies, laws, or regulations: as a : an action, hearing, trial, or application before the ...
1 : money or other property received as the result of a sale or other transaction esp. involving collateral [retain a security interest in the of collateral] 2 : money received from an insurance ...
- procès verbal
pl: procès ver·bals [-bÄ lz] [French, literally, verbal trial] in the civil law of Louisiana : an official written record of a proceeding (as a judicial sale of property)
1 : a continuous operation, art, or method esp. in manufacture [whoever invents or discovers any new and useful …may obtain a patent therefor "U.S. Code"] 2 a : procedure see also abuse of ...
: to declare or declare to be solemnly, officially, or formally [ an amnesty]
1 : the act of proclaiming 2 : something proclaimed ;specif : an official formal public announcement (as a public notice, edict, or decree) compare declaration, executive order
1 in the civil law of Louisiana : power of attorney 2 : procurement
pro·cured pro·cur·ing : to obtain, induce, or cause to take place pro·cur·able adj pro·cur·er n
1 : the act of procuring 2 : the purchasing, leasing, renting, or selling of materials, services, equipment, or construction
- procuring cause
- producer goods
- producing cause
1 : the result of work or thought 2 a : the output of an industry or firm b : a thing created by manufacturing 3 in the civil law of Louisiana : something (as timber or a mineral) that is derived ...
- product liability lawsuit
A suit brought by a person who has been injured by a product as opposed to being injured by another individual
- products liability
- professional corporation
- professional service
: a service requiring specialized knowledge and skill usually of a mental or intellectual nature and usually requiring a license, certification, or registration
: the practice of singling out persons for law enforcement procedures on the basis of predetermined characteristics ;specif ]
1 : gain in excess of expenditures: as a : the excess of the selling price of goods over their cost b : net income from a business, investment, or capital appreciation compare earnings, loss 2 : a ...
- profit a prendre
or profit À prendre [prÄ -fət-Ä -prÄ n-dər] n pl: profits À prendre or: profits À prendre [Anglo-French, literally, profit to be taken] : a right, privilege, ...
- profit sharing
: a plan under which employees receive a part of the profits of an enterprise
: affording profits : yielding advantageous returns or results prof·it·abil·i·ty [prÄ -fə-tə-bi-lə-tē] n pro·fit·able·ness n ...
: one who makes what is considered an unreasonable profit esp. on the sale of essential goods during times of emergency (as during wartime) profiteer vi
: increasing in rate as the base increases [a tax]
1 a : an extraordinary writ issued by a higher court commanding an inferior court to keep within its proper jurisdiction (as by ceasing a prosecution) b : an order to refrain or stop 2 a : ...
- prohibitory injunction
[French, literally, plan] in the civil law of Louisiana : a draft of a proposed code or constitution
: a declaration or manifestation esp. in a contract of an intention to act or refrain from acting in a specified way that gives the party to whom it is made a right to expect its fulfillment ...
- promise implied in fact
- promise implied in law
: one to whom a promise is made
also prom·is·er [prÄ -mə-sər] n : one that makes a promise compare obligor, offeror
: containing or conveying a promise or assurance [ terms]
- promissory estoppel
- promissory note
- promissory warranty
: one who alone or with others actively participates in the formation of a business or venture [s owe a fiduciary duty to the corporation they are promoting "R. C. Clark"]
-gat·ed -gat·ing 1 : to make known or public 2 : to put (as a regulation) into effect prom·ul·ga·tion [prÄ -məl-gā-shən, prō-məl-] n ...
[alteration of Middle English preove, from Old French preuve, from Late Latin proba, from Latin probare to prove] 1 : the effect of evidence sufficient to persuade a reasonable person that a ...
- proof beyond a reasonable doubt
see burden of proof.
- proof of claim
:a written statement that sets forth a claim against a bankrupt debtor or the probate estate of a deceased debtor
- proof of loss
:a statement submitted to an insurer setting forth a loss that the insured expects to be covered ;also : proof that such a loss has occurred
- proof of service
:a statement submitted (as by a sheriff) to the court as evidence of successful service of process to a party
- proof of will
: marked by fitness or correctness ;esp : being in accordance with established procedure, law, jurisdiction, or standards of care, fairness, and justice [argued that the shareholder was acting in ...
- proper lookout
: the due degree of vigilance expected of the operator of a vehicle or train in avoiding collisions with vehicles or pedestrians
- proper party
pl: -ties [Anglo-French propreté proprieté, from Latin proprietat- proprietas, from proprius own, particular] 1 : something (as an interest, money, or land) that is owned or possessed see ...
- property (fixture and non-fixture)
in a real estate contract, the property is the land within the legally described boundaries and all permanent structures and fixtures. Ownership of the property confers the legal right to use the ...
- property damage liability
Insurance that protects you, and pays on your behalf, for automobile-related damage that you cause to another persons' property. If offered jointly with bodily injury liability, as it often is, it may ...
- property interest
- property of the estate
All legal or equitable interests of the debtor in property as of the commencement of the case.
- property right
1 : a right or interest in or involving property (as real property) [a conflict between environmental regulations and property rights] 2 : property interest at interest
- property tax
: a tax levied on real or personal property (as by a municipality) compare excise, income tax
- property tax deduction
the U.S. tax code allows homeowners to deduct the amount they have paid in property taxes from there total income.
: designed or tending to prevent harm or wrong [a rule against profiting from inside information]
1 : one who argues in favor of something 2 : one who offers a will for probate
pl: -tar·ies 1 : something that is used, produced, or marketed under exclusive legal right of the inventor or maker ;specif : a drug (as a patent medicine) that is protected by secrecy, patent, ...
- proprietary lease
: one who has legal right or exclusive title to something : owner ;also : one (as a lessee) having an interest (as control or present use) less than absolute or exclusive right
1 : the fact or state of being a proprietor 2 : a business entity consisting of a single owner : sole proprietorship compare corporation, partnership
- propter affectum
[Medieval Latin] : because of partiality [challenge a juror propter affectum]
- propter defectum
[Medieval Latin] : because of a defect (as residence or relationship) [the disqualification of a juror propter defectum]
pro·scribed pro·scrib·ing [Latin proscribere to publish, proscribe, from pro- before + scribere to write] : to condemn or forbid as harmful or unlawful
1 : the act of proscribing : the state of being proscribed 2 : an imposed restraint or restriction pro·scrip·tive [-skrip-tiv] adj pro·scrip·tive·ly adv
-cut·ed -cut·ing [Latin prosecutus, past participle of prosequi to pursue] vt 1 : to institute and carry forward legal action against for redress or esp. punishment of a crime 2 : to ...
- prosecuting attorney
: an attorney who represents the government in instituting and proceeding with criminal actions : district attorney
- prosecuting witness
1 : the act or process of prosecuting ;esp : the institution and carrying on of a criminal action involving the process of seeking formal charges against a person and pursuing those charges to final ...
- prosecution history estoppel
: of or relating to prosecution [ function]
1 : a person who institutes a prosecution (as by making an affidavit or complaint charging the defendant) 2 : a government attorney who presents the state's case against the defendant in a criminal ...
: of, relating to, or being a prosecutor or prosecution
1 : relating to or effective in the future [a statute's effect] 2 : likely to come about : expected to happen [ inability to perform the contract] 3 : likely to be or become [a buyer] ...
pl: -tus·es [-tə-səz] : a preliminary printed statement describing a business or other enterprise and distributed to prospective buyers, investors, or participants ;specif : a ...
: a person who engages in sexual activity indiscriminately esp. for money compare panderer, pimp
: the act or practice of engaging in sexual activity indiscriminately esp. for money ;also : the crime of engaging in such activity
1 : to shield from injury or harm [ing public health and safety] 2 : to secure or preserve against encroachment, infringement, restriction, or violation : maintain the status or integrity of esp. ...
- protected class
: a group of people intended by a legislature to benefit from the protection of a statute ;also : suspect class
1 : the act of protecting : the state of being protected [entitled to constitutional ] 2 a : one that protects b : supervision or support of one having less power [ of endangered species] 3 : the ...
- protection order
: of, relating to, or providing protection
- protective custody
- protective order
- protective search
- protective sweep
: a quick protective search limited in scope to a cursory visual inspection of places in which a person might hide
- protective trust
1 : a solemn declaration of opinion and usually of disagreement: as a : a solemn written declaration by a notary public or U.S. consul on behalf of the holder of an instrument (as a note) announcing ...
: a person challenging an action of an administrative agency
pl: -ries [Late Latin protonotarius, from proto- first in time + Latin notarius stenographer] : a chief clerk of any of various courts of law pro·thon·o·tar·i·al ...
1 : an original draft, minute, or record of a document or transaction 2 a : a preliminary memorandum often formulated and signed by diplomatic negotiators as a basis for a final convention or treaty ...
proved proved or: prov·en [prü-vən] prov·ing 1 : to test the truth, validity, or genuineness of [ a will at probate] 2 a : to establish the existence, truth, or validity of [the ...
: a stipulation (as a clause in a statute or contract) made beforehand
1 : provided for a temporary need : suitable or acceptable in the existing situation but subject to change or nullification [a government] [ custody of a minor] 2 : of, relating to, or being ...
pl: -sos or: -soes [Medieval Latin proviso quod provided that] 1 : an article or clause (as in a statute or contract) that introduces a condition 2 : a conditional stipulation
1 : the act of provoking 2 : something that provokes, arouses, or stimulates
pro·voked pro·vok·ing 1 : to incite to anger 2 : to provide the needed stimulus for pro·vok·er n
1 : next immediately preceding or following (as in a chain of causation, events, or effects) : being or leading to a particular esp. foreseeable result without intervention see also proximate cause ...
- proximate cause
: the quality or state of being proximate
pl: prox·ies [Middle English procucie, contraction of procuracie, from Anglo-French, from Medieval Latin procuratia, alteration of Latin procuratio appointment of another as one's agent] 1 : the ...
- proxy contest
: a shareholder's challenge to an action or the control of corporate management accomplished through the solicitation of proxies from other shareholders called also proxy fight
- proxy marriage
: a marriage performed in the absence of either the bride or groom who authorizes a proxy to represent him or her at the ceremony
- proxy statement
: a document containing information about a proposed corporate action that the corporation is required to submit to shareholders for their vote on the action
potentially responsible party used esp. in environmental law
: attentiveness to possible hazard : caution or circumspection as to danger or risk [a person of ordinary ]
: characterized by, arising from, or showing prudence pru·dent·ly adv
- prudent man rule
: a rule giving discretion to a fiduciary and esp. a trustee to manage another's affairs and invest another's money with such skill and care as a person of ordinary prudence and intelligence would ...
: marked by or arousing an unwholesome sexual interest or desire pru·ri·ent·ly adv
- pseudo mark
A way of locating a word mark that is comprised of an alternative or intentionally corrupted spelling of an English word. The pseudo mark search locates spellings that are very similar or phonetically ...
1 a : exposed to general view [ indecency] b : known or recognized by many or most people 2 a : of, relating to, or affecting all of the people or the whole area of a nation or state [ statutes] b ...
- public accommodations
Federal and state laws prohibit discrimination against certain protected groups in businesses and places that are considered "public accommodations." The definition of a "public accommodation" may ...
- public act
: public law
- public administrator
- public bill
- public charge
Refers to becoming dependent upon the government for the expenses of living (food, shelter, clothing, etc.). Following U.S. immigration law, an applicant is ineligible for a visa if he/she will be a ...
- public corporation
- public defender
: a lawyer usually holding public office who represents criminal defendants unable to pay for legal assistance
- public domain
1 : land owned directly by the government 2 : the realm or status of property rights that belong to the community at large, are unprotected by copyright or patent, and are subject to appropriation ...
- public duty doctrine
: a doctrine in tort law: a government entity (as a state or municipality) cannot be held liable for the injuries of an individual resulting from a public officer's or employee's breach of a duty ...
- public figure
: an individual or entity that has acquired fame or notoriety or has participated in a particular public controversy see also limited purpose public figure compare public official NOTE: A public ...
- public forum
: a place that has a long-standing tradition of being used for, is historically associated with, or has been dedicated by government act to the free exercise of the right to speech and public debate ...
- public interest
- public invitee
: a person invited to enter or remain on property for a purpose for which the property is held open to the public
- public land
: land owned by a government
- public law
1 : an enactment of a legislature that affects the public at large throughout the entire territory (as a state or nation) which is subject to the jurisdiction of the legislature or within a ...
- public nuisance
- public offering
: an offering of corporate securities to the general public or to potential purchasers whose level of knowledge or access to information about the securities is dependent upon the disclosures of the ...
- public office
: an office created by a constitution or legislative act, having a definite tenure, and involving the power to carry out some governmental function
- public officer
: a person who has been elected or appointed to a public office
- public official
: public officer ;specif : a person holding a public office the nature of which requires that in order for the person to prevail in a defamation action he or she must show actual malice on the part ...
- public person
in the civil law of Louisiana : a juridical person (as the state) acting in a sovereign capacity
- public record
: a record required by law to be made and kept: a : a record made by a public officer or a government agency in the course of the performance of a duty b : a record filed in a public office NOTE: ...
- public record information
Court records of events that are a matter of public interest such as credit, bankruptcy, foreclosure and tax liens. The presence of public record information on a credit report is regarded negatively ...
- public records exception
: an exception to the hearsay rule allowing admission into evidence of records, reports, statements, or data compilations made by public offices or agencies that set forth activities of the office or ...
- public right
: a right created by the legislature that may be exercised against the government often used in pl.
- public sale
- public school
A school established under the laws of the state and regulated by local authorities in various districts, counties or towns, maintained at the public expense by taxation, and open to residents' ...
- public statute
: public law
- public trust doctrine
: a doctrine asserting that the state holds land lying beneath navigable waters as trustee of a public trust for the benefit of its citizens
- public use
- public utility
: a business organization (as an electric company) performing a public service and subject to special government regulation
1 : the act or process of publishing 2 : a published work
- publici juris
[Latin] : belonging to the public : subject to a right of the public to enjoy
- publicly held corporation
: public corporation at corporation
1 : to make known to another or to the public generally NOTE: For purposes of defamation, a defamatory communication made to only one third party may be considered published. 2 a : to proclaim ...
1 : an act or instance of puffing 2 : a statement that amounts to puffing [whether the seller's statement was a “” or an express warranty "J. J. White and R. S. Summers"]
: the practice of making exaggerated commendations esp. for promotional purposes ;also : the exaggerated commendations made NOTE: Generally, a seller cannot be held liable for misrepresentation for ...
- Pullman abstention
- punch list
a list of items that have not been completed at the time of the final walk through of a newly constructed home.
1 : to impose a penalty on for a fault, offense, or violation 2 : to inflict a penalty for the commission of (an offense) in retribution or retaliation or as a deterrent vi : to inflict punishment ...
1 : the act of punishing 2 : a penalty (as a fine or imprisonment) inflicted on an offender through the judicial and esp. criminal process see also cruel and unusual punishment
: inflicting, involving, or aiming at punishment pu·ni·tive·ly adv pu·ni·tive·ness n
- punitive damages
- pur autre vie
: for another's life see also estate pur autre vie at estate
pur·chased pur·chas·ing vt 1 : to acquire (real property) by means other than descent or inheritance 2 : to obtain by paying money or giving other valuable consideration ;specif : to ...
- purchase money
: the consideration paid or to be paid by the purchaser of property
- purchase money mortgage
- purchase money resulting trust
- purchase money security interest
- purchase offer
A detailed, written document that makes an offer to purchase a property, and that may be amended several times in the process of negotiations. When signed by all parties involved in the sale, the ...
1 a : unmixed with any other matter b : free from dirt or taint 2 : being thus and nothing other [a no-fault compensation system] pure·ly adv pure·ness n
- pure accident
: unavoidable accident
- pure premium
: net premium
- pure race
: of, relating to, or being a recording act in which the first party to properly record documentation of an interest in property has priority regardless of notice of other claims [a pure race ...
- pure risk
: a risk that can only result in loss compare speculative risk
- pure speech
: the communication of ideas through spoken or written words or through conduct limited in form to that necessary to convey the idea compare commercial speech, symbolic speech NOTE: Pure speech is ...
: the act or the result of purging
purged purg·ing 1 : to clear (as oneself or another) of guilt [purged himself of contempt] 2 : to become no longer guilty of [ the contempt]
[Anglo-French pourpartie, from Old French pur pour for + partie division] : a share or portion of an estate allotted by a partition to a coparcener
: an objective, effect, or result aimed at or attained ;specif : the business activity in which a corporation is chartered to engage pur·pose·ful [-fəl] adj ...
: with a deliberate, conscious, or express purpose : intentionally
[Anglo-French, alteration of Old French porpresure, from porprendre to seize, occupy, enclose, from por- for + prendre to take, from Latin prehendere] : wrongful appropriation of land subject to the ...
[Anglo-French purveu est it is provided (opening phrase of a statute)] 1 : the body of a statute or the part that begins with Be it enacted and ends before the repealing clause 2 : the limit or ...
: put option at option
- put option
: thought, assumed, or alleged to be such or to exist [the child's father] [ignorantly entered into a marriage before the divorce from a previous spouse was final] pu·ta·tive·ly adv ...
1 : a group of holding companies superimposed on one another to give those in control of the top holding company control over all of the companies with a small investment 2 : the series of ...