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[S]

  • S Corporation
    A small business corporation with a limited number of shareholders. Its major significance is the fact that an S corporation usually avoids corporate income tax. Corporate losses can be claimed by ...
  • S-Http
    Secure HTTP, or S-HTTP, enables the secure exchange of information and files on the Web. S-HTTP files are encrypted and/or contain a digital certificate. This type of transaction security is likely to ...
  • S.B.
    senate bill
  • S.J.D.
    [New Latin scientiae juridicae doctor] doctor of juridical science, doctor of the science of law
  • Sabotage
    [French, from saboter to clatter with wooden shoes, botch, sabotage, from sabot wooden shoe] 1 : the willful destruction of an employer's property or the hindering of normal operations by other means ...
  • Safe Harbor
    : something (as a statutory or regulatory provision) that provides protection (as from a penalty or liability) [had no safe harbor from prosecution]
  • Safe Haven
    Temporary refuge given to migrants who have fled their countries of origin to seek protection or relief from persecution or other hardships, until they can return to their countries safely or, if ...
  • Salable
    or sale·able [sā-lə-bəl] adj : merchantable
  • Salary
    pl: -ries : fixed compensation paid regularly for services sal·a·ried adj
  • Sale
    1 a : the transfer of title to property from one party to another for a price ;also : the contract of such a transaction see also short compare barter, donation, exchange, gift absolute sale : a ...
  • Sale In Gross
    see sale
  • Sale Leaseback
    when a seller deeds property to a buyer for a payment, and the buyer simultaneously leases the property back to the seller.
  • Sale On Approval
    see sale
  • Sale Or Return
    see sale
  • Saleable
    var of salable
  • Sales Tax
    : a tax levied on the sale of goods and services that is usually calculated as a percentage of the purchase price and collected by the seller
  • Salvage
    1 a : compensation paid for saving a ship or its cargo from the perils of the sea or for recovering it from an actual loss (as in a shipwreck) b : the act of saving or rescuing a ship or its cargo ...
  • Salvage Value
    1 : the value of damaged property 2 : the actual or estimated value realized on the sale of a fixed asset at the end of its useful life NOTE: Salvage value is used in calculating depreciation.
  • Same Evidence Test
    : a test for double jeopardy that involves a determination of whether the same facts would support both a prior and second conviction
  • Same-Sex Harassment
    The type of sexual harassment that occurs when a male sexually harasses a male, or a female sexually harasses a female.
  • Same-Sex Marriage
    The right of two people of the same sex to legally marry, and to enjoy the legal benefits conferred by marriage. Same-sex marriage has become a topical issue in the arena of civil rights.
  • Sanction
    1 : a punitive or coercive measure or action that results from failure to comply with a law, rule, or order [a for contempt] 2 : explicit or official approval 3 : an economic or military coercive ...
  • Sanctionable
    : deserving or liable to be sanctioned [ conduct]
  • Sane
    : mentally sound ;specif : able to understand one's actions and distinguish right from wrong
  • Sanity
    : the quality or state of being sane compare insanity
  • Satisfaction
    1 a : the act or fact of satisfying b : execution of an accord by performance of the substituted obligation often used in the phrase accord and satisfaction compare accord, transaction c : a ...
  • Satisfaction Piece
    : a formal written acknowledgment by an obligee (as a mortgagee) that an obligation has been satisfied and that the obligor is discharged
  • Satisfy
    -fied -fy·ing 1 a : to carry out the terms or obligation of (as by payment of money) [refused to the judgment against her] [ a condition precedent] ;broadly : to cause to be discharged, ...
  • Saving Clause
    : a clause in a statute exempting something from the statute's operation or providing that the rest of it will stand if part is held invalid ;also : a contractual clause providing that if part of ...
  • Saving To Suitors Clause
    :a clause in federal law found at title 28 section 1333(1) of the U.S. Code that allows a party to pursue a remedy for a maritime claim in a state court when entitled to such remedy and that ...
  • Savings And Loan Association
    : a cooperative association organized to hold savings of members in the form of dividend-bearing shares and to invest chiefly in home mortgage loans
  • Savings Bank
    see bank
  • Savings Bank Trust
    see trust
  • Savings Bond
    see bond
  • Savings Clause
    : saving clause
  • Savings Statute
    : a statute explicitly excepting certain proceedings, remedies, penalties, rights, or liabilities from the effect of a repeal, amendment, or law called also saving statute
  • Saw
    See Special Agricultural Worker.
  • Sba
    Small Business Administration see also the Important Agencies section
  • Scab
    1 : a worker who refuses to join a labor union 2 : a union member who refuses to strike or returns to work before a strike has ended 3 : a worker who accepts employment or replaces a union worker ...
  • Scale
    : a set of graduated wage rates ;also : a wage consistent with such rates compare minimum wage
  • Scalp
    : to buy and sell so as to make small quick profits [ stocks] ;esp : to resell at greatly increased prices vi : to profit by slight market fluctuations scalp·er n
  • Schedule
    1 a : a list or statement of supplementary details appended to another document b : a formal list, table, catalog, or inventory 2 : a plan that indicates the time and sequence of each element ...
  • Schedule A Occupations
    The Department of Labor (DOL) has given the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services authority to approve labor certifications for these occupations. These occupations are physical therapists, ...
  • Scheduled
    : insured or effective in accordance with a schedule listing particular property, injuries, or services covered [ personal property] [ coverage]
  • Schedules
    IRS forms that are used to report various kinds of income, deductions, and credits.
  • Scheme
    1 : a combination of elements (as statutes or regulations) that are connected, adjusted, and integrated by design : a systematic plan or program [an administrative inspection ] 2 : a crafty, ...
  • School Board
    A state or local board organized for government and management of schools in a state or municipality.
  • School Committee
    A board of municipal officers charged with the administration of the affairs of public schools.
  • School District
    A public and quasi-municipal corporation, organized by legislative authority comprising a defined territory, for the erection, maintenance, government and support of the public schools within its ...
  • Sci. Fa.
    scire facias
  • Scienter
    [Latin, knowingly, from scient- sciens, present participle of scire to know] 1 : knowledge of the nature of one's act or omission or of the nature of something in one's possession that is often a ...
  • Scintilla
    : a small trace or barely perceptible amount of something (as evidence supporting a position)
  • Scire Facias
    [Medieval Latin, you should cause to know] 1 : a judicial writ founded upon some matter of record and requiring the party proceeded against to show cause why the record should not be enforced (as by ...
  • Scope Of Employment
    :the range of conduct and activity within which an employee can reasonably be considered to be carrying out the business of his or her employer [workers' compensation for injuries arising out of the ...
  • Script
    Script is a programming term referring to a set of instructions or program that is executed by another program instead of the computer processor. Examples of script languages include PERL and ...
  • Scrivener
    [Middle English, alteration of scriveyn, from Anglo-French escrivein, ultimately from Latin scriba public record keeper, from scribere to write] : a professional or public copyist or writer of ...
  • Scrutiny
    pl: -nies : searching study or inquiry ;specif : judicial investigation of the constitutionality of a statutory classification of persons under the equal protection clause of the U.S. Constitution ...
  • Scsi
    Acronym for Small Computer System Interface. SCSI, pronounced skuzzy, enables a computer to interact with external hardware, such as CD-ROM drives, printers, and scanners.
  • Seal
    [Old French seel, from Latin sigillum, from diminutive of signum mark, sign] : a device (as an emblem, symbol, or word) used to identify or replace a signature and to authenticate (as at common law) ...
  • Seaman
    Sailors, mariners and persons whose business is navigating ships or who are connected with the ship and in some capacity assist in its conduct, maintenance or service.
  • Search
    1 : an exploratory investigation (as of an area or person) by a government agent that intrudes on an individual's reasonable expectation of privacy and is conducted usually for the purpose of finding ...
  • Search And Seizure
    The body of law that covers the issues of examining a person's property with the intention of finding evidence not in plain view (search) and taking possession of that property against the will of ...
  • Search And Seizure Warrant
    : search warrant at warrant
  • Search Warrant
    see warrant
  • Seasonable
    : occurring within the time agreed to by parties to a commercial transaction or within a reasonable time [ notice of the rejection of goods] sea·son·ably [-blē] adv
  • Sec
    Securities and Exchange Commission see also the Important Agencies section
  • Second Degree
    : the grade given to the second most serious forms of crimes [assault in the second degree] second-degree adj
  • Second Mortgage
    see mortgage
  • Second Preference
    A category of family immigration (F2) for spouses, children and unmarried sons and daughters of lawful permanent residents.
  • Second-Degree Murder
    see murder
  • Secondary
    1 : of second rank, status, importance, or value 2 : derived from something original or primary 3 : of, relating to, or being the second order or stage in a series ...
  • Secondary Beneficiary
    see beneficiary
  • Secondary Boycott
    : a boycott of an employer with which a union does not have a dispute that is intended to induce the employer to cease doing business with another employer with which the union does have a dispute ...
  • Secondary Evidence
    see evidence
  • Secondary Liability
    see liability
  • Secondary Market
    1 : the market in which previously issued securities are sold compare primary market 2 : the market in which existing mortgages are bought and sold
  • Secondary Meaning
    : a developed association in the public's mind between the mark, name, or trade dress of a product and a specific manufacturer originating it that renders the mark, name, or trade dress protectable ...
  • Secondary Mortgage Market
    the buying and selling of mortgage loans. Investors purchase residential mortgages originated by lenders, which in turn provides the lenders with capital for additional lending.
  • Secondary Picketing
    : the picketing of an employer who conducts business with an employer with whom a union has a dispute NOTE: Secondary picketing that is not for the purpose of informing the public of the dispute ...
  • Secondary Strike
    see strike
  • Secret Testament
    : mystic will at will
  • Secretary
    pl: -tar·ies often cap 1 : an officer of a business concern who may keep records of directors' and stockholders' meetings and of stock ownership and transfer and help supervise the company's ...
  • Secretary Of State's Office
    In most states, the official office responsible for many types of formal state business, such as licensing of corporations and filing of UCC security agreements.
  • Secretary Of The Senate
    :an officer of the Senate chiefly responsible for administration and operation
  • Section 1983
    : the section of title 42 of the U.S. Code that makes a person liable for depriving another of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured by the U.S. Constitution and laws while acting under color ...
  • Section 213a
    A section of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) which establishes that sponsors have a legal duty to support immigrants they want to bring (sponsor) to the United States. They must complete ...
  • Secure
    se·cured se·cur·ing 1 : to put beyond hazard of losing or not receiving [ the blessings of liberty "U.S. Constitution preamble"] 2 a : to protect or make certain (as by lien) [make a ...
  • Secured
    1 a : guaranteed or protected by security [a claim] b : constituting security [ property] 2 : having a security interest [an interest rendering the primary lender ] 3 : involving or providing for ...
  • Secured Creditor
    see creditor
  • Secured Debt
    Debt backed by a mortgage, pledge of collateral, or other lien; debt for which the creditor has the right to pursue specific pledged property upon default. Examples include home mortgages, auto loans ...
  • Secured Loan
    a loan backed by collateral such as property.
  • Secured Party
    see party
  • Secured Transaction
    : a transaction that is intended to create a security interest in personal property (as goods) or fixtures and that is governed by Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code compare security agreement
  • Securities Act Of 1933
    The federal securities act regulating the initial public offering (IPO) of securities. (15 U.S.C. Sec. 77)
  • Securities Act Of 1934
    The federal securities act regulating the public trading of securities. This legislation established the Securities and Exchange Commission. (15 U.S.C. Sec. 78)
  • Securities And Exchange Commission
    The federal governmental agency that maintains order of the stock and securities exchanges
  • Securities And Exchange Commission (Sec)
    The five-member board appointed by the president that regulates and oversees stock trading and enforces federal securities statutes.
  • Securitize
    -tized -tiz·ing : to convert (assets) into securities typically by transferring them (as by sale) to a special trust, partnership, or corporation that issues them as securities with a resulting ...
  • Security
    pl: -ties 1 a : something (as a mortgage or collateral) that is provided to make certain the fulfillment of an obligation [used his property as for a loan] b : surety see also security for costs 2 ...
  • Security Agreement
    : an agreement which creates or provides for a security interest [perfect a security interest in collateral described in a security agreement] compare secured transaction
  • Security Council
    The executive body of the United Nations, charged with the duty of preventing or stopping wars by diplomatic, economic or military action.
  • Security Deposit
    : money provided by a tenant to a landlord to secure performance of a rental agreement or compensate for possible loss or damage
  • Security For Costs
    :security sometimes required of a party to litigation in order to assure payment of expenses
  • Security Interest
    see interest
  • Sedition
    [Latin seditio, literally, separation, from sed apart + itio act of going, from ire to go] : the crime of creating a revolt, disturbance, or violence against lawful civil authority with the intent to ...
  • Segregate
    -gat·ed -gat·ing vt : to cause or force the separation of ;specif : to separate (persons) on the basis of race, religion, or national origin vi : to practice or enforce a policy of ...
  • Segregation
    1 : separation of individuals or groups and esp. racial groups compare desegregation de facto segregation : segregation of racial groups that arises as a result of economic, social, or other ...
  • Seise
    var of seize
  • Seisin
    or sei·zin [sēz-n] n [Anglo-French seisine, from Old French saisine act of taking possession, from saisir to seize, of Germanic origin] 1 : the possession of land or chattels: as a : the ...
  • Seize
    seized seiz·ing 1 or seise : to put in possession of property or vest with the right of possession or succession [stand seized of land] 2 : to take possession or custody of (property) esp. by ...
  • Seizin
    var of seisin
  • Seizure
    : the act, fact, or process of seizing: as a : the seizing of property that involves meaningful interference with a person's possessory interest in it [ of evidence found in plain view] see also ...
  • Selective Incorporation
    : a theory or doctrine of constitutional law that those rights guaranteed by the first eight amendments to the U.S. Constitution that are fundamental to and implicit in the concept of ordered liberty ...
  • Selectman
    : one of a board of officials elected in towns of all New England states except Rhode Island to serve as the chief administrative authority of the town
  • Self-Dealing
    : engagement in a transaction that is intended primarily to benefit one's self or the narrow interests of a few (as corporate insiders) rather than those to whom one owes a duty by virtue of one's ...
  • Self-Defense
    1 : the use of force to defend oneself 2 : an affirmative defense (as to a murder charge) alleging that the defendant used force necessarily to protect himself or herself because of a reasonable ...
  • Self-Employed
    A person who individually decides when and where to work and pays his or her own expenses. Self-employed individuals must pay self-employment taxes.
  • Self-Employment Tax
    Social Security and Medicare tax paid by individuals who work for themselves.
  • Self-Executing
    : taking effect immediately without the need for implementing legislation or further judicial action [a judgment]
  • Self-Help
    : the act of redressing or preventing a wrong by one's own actions rather than through legal proceedings NOTE: The Uniform Commercial Code permits creditors to repossess collateral by self-help if it ...
  • Self-Incriminating
    : tending to incriminate oneself [a statement]
  • Self-Incrimination
    : incrimination of and by oneself esp. through testimony see also privilege against self-incrimination at privilege
  • Self-Insurance
    : insurance of oneself, one's interests, or one's components (as of a governmental unit) through the use of a fund that one maintains to cover losses
  • Self-Insure
    : to insure by self-insurance (as in workers' compensation) [an employer wishing to its liability "Pennsylvania Statutes"] vi : to use self-insurance [a governmental agency that s] ...
  • Self-Proved
    : self-proving
  • Self-Proving
    1 : containing proof of its own validity [a will] 2 : providing or being the evidence that renders something self-proving ;esp : being an affidavit signed by the witnesses to a will attesting to ...
  • Self-Serving Declaration
    see declaration
  • Sell
    sold sell·ing vt 1 : to transfer ownership of by sale compare barter, convey, give 2 : to offer for sale vi : to dispose of something by sale : make a sale compare donate sell·er n ...
  • Seller Take Back
    an agreement where the owner of a property provides second mortgage financing. These are often combined with an assumed mortgage instead of a portion of the seller's equity.
  • Semble
    : it seems [ that the two statutes are consistent] used chiefly to indicate obiter dictum usually parenthetically following a citation or to introduce a tentative thought
  • Senate
    : the upper chamber in a bicameral legislature ;esp cap : the upper house of the U.S. Congress or a state legislature
  • Senator
    : a member of a senate sen·a·to·ri·al [se-nə-tōr-ē-əl] adj
  • Senior
    : having higher rank or priority [a lienholder] ;specif : having a claim on corporate assets and income prior to other securities
  • Senior Lien
    see lien
  • Senior Mortgage
    see mortgage
  • Seniority
    1 : the quality or state of being senior 2 : the senior status attained by length of continuous service (as in a company) ;also : the length of such continuous service
  • Sentence
    [Old French, opinion, judicial sentence, from Latin sententia, ultimately from sentire to feel, think, express an opinion] 1 : a judgment formally pronouncing the punishment to be inflicted on one ...
  • Sentencing Guidelines
    : a set of rules for computing sentences that is promulgated by a commission on sentencing and that typically provides classifications (as of offenses or offenders), scales (as of severity of ...
  • Sep
    : simplified employee pension
  • Separability Clause
    : severability clause
  • Separable Controversy
    : a separate and independent claim or cause of action that by itself is removable to the federal courts even though it is joined with others that are not removable NOTE: If a case involves a ...
  • Separate
    -rat·ed -rat·ing vt : to cause the separation of vi : to undergo a separation [the couple separated last year] compare divorce
  • Separate But Equal
    : the doctrine set forth by the U.S. Supreme Court that sanctioned the segregation of individuals by race in separate but equal facilities but that was invalidated as unconstitutional see also Brown ...
  • Separate Estate
    see estate
  • Separate Maintenance
    : maintenance paid (as by court order) from one spouse to another during separation [entitlement to separate maintenance does not extend to the division of marital assets "Kennedy v. Kennedy, 662 So. ...
  • Separate Opinion
    see opinion
  • Separate Property
    see property
  • Separated
    : being in a state of estrangement between spouses usually requiring the maintenance of separate residences and the intent to live apart permanently : being in a state of separation [has been for a ...
  • Separation
    1 : cessation of cohabitation between a married couple by mutual agreement with intent that it be permanent ;also : legal separation compare divorce NOTE: In some cases in which the estrangement is ...
  • Separation Agreement
    : a contractual agreement setting forth terms pertaining to property, child support, or other matters in the separation of a married couple [incorporated the separation agreement into the divorce ...
  • Separation From Bed And Board
    :legal separation
  • Separation Of Church And State
    :the separation of religion and government mandated under the establishment clause and the free exercise clause of the U.S. Constitution that forbids governmental establishment or preference of a ...
  • Separation Of Powers
    1 : the constitutional allocation of the legislative, executive, and judicial powers among the three branches of government 2 : the doctrine under which the legislative, executive, and judicial ...
  • Sequester
    -tered -ter·ing [Anglo-French sequestrer, from Middle French, from Latin sequestrare to hand over to a trustee, from sequester third party to whom disputed property is entrusted, agent, from ...
  • Sequestrate
    -trat·ed -trat·ing : sequester
  • Sequestration
    1 : the act of sequestering : the state of being sequestered 2 a : a writ authorizing an official (as a sheriff) to take into custody the property of a defendant usually to enforce a court order, ...
  • Sequestrator
    1 : an official who executes a writ of sequestration 2 : someone who holds property in sequestration
  • Serial Bond
    see bond
  • Seriatim
    [Medieval Latin, from Latin series succession of persons or things, series, from serere to join, bind together] : in a series : individually in a sequence [we will consider the complaints ]
  • Serious Bodily Harm
    : serious bodily injury
  • Serious Bodily Injury
    : bodily injury which involves substantial risk of death, protracted and obvious disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member or organ or mental faculty compare ...
  • Serious Delinquency
    a mortgage that is 90 days or more past due.
  • Servant
    : a person who serves others: as a : an individual who performs duties about the person or home of a master or personal employer b : a person in the employ and subject to the direction or control ...
  • Serve
    served serv·ing 1 : to deliver, publish, or execute (notice or process) as required by law [no notice of any such request was ever served on the husband "National Law Journal"] 2 : to make ...
  • Service
    1 : the act of delivering to or informing someone of a writ, summons, or other notice as prescribed by law [after of process] see also notice by publication at notice, substituted service, summons ...
  • Service Mark
    : a mark (as a name) used esp. in advertising to identify and distinguish services (as transportation) of one person from another and to indicate the source of the services see also Trademark Act of ...
  • Service Of Process
    bringing a judicial proceeding to the notice of a person affected by it by delivering to him or her a summons, or notice of the proceeding. See summons.
  • Servicer
    a business that collects mortgage payments from borrowers and manages the borrower's escrow accounts.
  • Servicing
    the collection of mortgage payments from borrowers and related responsibilities of a loan servicer.
  • Servient Estate
    see estate
  • Servitude
    1 : a condition in which an individual lacks liberty esp. to determine his or her course of action or way of life ;specif : the state of being a slave [involuntary ] see also Amendment XIII and ...
  • Session
    : a meeting or series of meetings of a body (as a court or legislature) for the transaction of business ;also : the period between the first meeting of a legislative or judicial body and the final ...
  • Set Aside
    1 : to disagree with and overturn (a decision or act of a lower tribunal) upon review : overrule vacate [set aside the decree] 2 : to deprive of legal effect or force : annul void [may set ...
  • Set Off
    : to reduce or discharge by set-off : offset
  • Setback
    the distance between a property line and the area where building can take place. Setbacks are used to assure space between buildings and from roads for a many of purposes including drainage and ...
  • Settle
    set·tled set·tling vt 1 : to resolve conclusively [ a question of law] 2 : to establish or secure permanently [a settled legal principle] 3 : close [ the sale of securities] [ the ...
  • Settlement
    1 : the act or process of settling 2 a : an agreement reducing or resolving differences ;esp : an agreement between litigants that concludes the litigation [the states finally agreed upon a and a ...
  • Settlement Conference
    A meeting at which the parties and their lawyers attempt to settle the case before trial, often ordered by the court.
  • Settlement Option
    see option
  • Settlement Statement
    a document required by the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA). It is an itemized statement of services and charges relating to the closing of a property transfer. The buyer has the right to ...
  • Settlor
    : a person who creates a trust compare beneficiary, trustee
  • Sever
    sev·ered sev·er·ing 1 : to end (a joint tenancy) by ending one or all of the unities of time, title, possession, or interest (as by conveying one tenant's interest to another party) 2 ...
  • Severability Clause
    : a clause (as in a contract) which states that provisions are severable ;esp : a clause in a statute that makes the statute's parts or provisions severable so that one part can be invalidated ...
  • Severable
    : capable of being severed : divisible [a contract] [a bequest] compare entire sev·er·abil·i·ty [se-vrə-bi-lə-tē, se-və-rə-] n
  • Several
    [Anglo-French, from Medieval Latin separalis, from Latin separ separate] 1 a : of or relating separately to each individual involved ;specif : enforceable separately against each party [each ...
  • Several Liability
    see liability
  • Several Obligation
    see obligation
  • Severalty
    [Anglo-French severalté separation, individual ownership, from several separate, several] 1 : sole, separate, and exclusive ownership : one's own right without a joint interest in another ...
  • Sex Discrimination
    : discrimination based on sex and esp. against women
  • Sexual Abuse
    1 a : the infliction of sexual contact upon a person by forcible compulsion b : the engaging in sexual contact with a person who is below a specified age or who is incapable of giving consent ...
  • Sexual Assault
    see assault
  • Sexual Battery
    see battery
  • Sexual Harassment
    : employment discrimination consisting of unwelcome verbal or physical conduct directed at an employee because of his or her sex ;also : the tort of engaging in such discrimination see also hostile ...
  • Shakedown Search
    see search
  • Sham
    : something that is false, deceptive, misleading, or otherwise not genuine
  • Sham Pleading
    see pleading
  • Sham Transaction
    : a transaction that is made to mislead or deceive others : a transaction having no economic effect that is made to create tax benefits NOTE: The Internal Revenue Service may deny tax benefits for ...
  • Share
    1 : a portion belonging to, due to, or due from an individual [a joint tortfeasor is liable for her of the damages] ;specif : the part allotted or belonging to one of a number owning together any ...
  • Shared Custody
    see custody
  • Shareholder
    : one that owns a share in a fund (as a mutual fund) or property ;esp : stockholder see also derivative action, equity, proxy contest share·hold·ing adj or n
  • Shareholder Control Agreement
    : a written unanimous agreement of shareholders that transfers control of specified areas of corporate governance (as election of directors and officers, issue of dividends, employment of ...
  • Shareholder Resolution
    : a formal resolution by shareholders ratifying or requesting a specified action by a corporate board
  • Shareholder's Derivative Suit
    : derivative action
  • Shareholders
    A person who owns stock in a corporation with certain legal rights attached.
  • Shareholders' Meeting
    : annual meeting
  • Shareowner
    : shareholder
  • Shark Repellent
    : any measure taken by a corporation to discourage a hostile takeover attempt
  • Shelf Registration
    : a provision of Securities and Exchange Commission regulations governing public offerings that allows corporations to defer sale of some shares after registration until market conditions are more ...
  • Shelf Security
    see security
  • Shell Corporation
    see corporation
  • Shelter Trust
    see trust
  • Shepardize
    -ized -iz·ing : to look up (a case citation) in Shepard's Citations esp. in order to check the status of the case, parallel citations, or the use of the case in other jurisdictions NOTE: ...
  • Sheriff
    [Old English scīrgerēfa, from scīr shire + gerēfa reeve (king's agent)] : an official of a county or parish charged primarily with judicial duties (as executing the processes and ...
  • Sheriff's Deed
    see deed
  • Sheriff's Sale
    see sale
  • Sherman Act
    A federal law that prohibits any unreasonable interference with the ordinary, usual and freely competitive pricing or distribution system of the open market in interstate trade. (15 U.S.C. Sec. 1-7)
  • Shield Law
    : a law that prevents or protects against disclosure or revelation of information: as a : rape shield law b : a law that protects journalists from disclosure of confidential news sources
  • Shifting Use
    see use
  • Shipment Contract
    see contract
  • Shock
    : of, relating to, or being a criminal sentence or condition of release involving participation in a program of vigorous physical training, discipline, regimentation, and rehabilitation therapy [ ...
  • Shop
    : a business establishment : a place of employment see also closed shop, open shop, union shop
  • Shop Committee
    : a committee composed of union members appointed or elected to handle employee grievances within a shop
  • Shop Right
    : the right of an employer to use without payment of any royalty an employee's invention developed in the course of employment
  • Shop Steward
    : a union member elected or appointed to serve as the representative of the union in a plant, department, or shop and charged mainly with negotiating the settlement of grievances of employees with ...
  • Shoplift
    : to steal displayed goods from a store vt : to steal (displayed goods) from a store
  • Shoplifter
    : one who shoplifts
  • Short
    1 : treated or disposed of quickly in court [the calendar for causes] 2 a : not having goods or property that one has sold in anticipation of a fall in prices [a seller who was at the time of the ...
  • Short Rate
    1 : an insurance premium charge for less than a year of coverage that is more than a pro rata part of the annual premium 2 : an insurance policy written for less than one year called also short term ...
  • Short Term
    : short rate
  • Short-Form Merger
    see merger
  • Short-Swing Profit
    : a profit made by a corporate insider who purchases stock and sells it or sells stock and purchases it within a prescribed period NOTE: Section 16(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 provides ...
  • Short-Term Capital Gain
    see gain
  • Show
    showed shown or: showed show·ing : to demonstrate or establish by argument, reasoning, or evidence [must a compelling need for the court action] show cause : to establish by reasoning and ...
  • Show Cause Order
    see order
  • Showing
    : an act or instance of establishing through evidence and argument [appears to require a more specific of need by those who seek to perform drug-testing "D. A. Grossbaum"] [failed to make a prima ...
  • Showup
    : a presentation of a criminal defendant or arrestee individually to a witness for identification compare lineup NOTE: A showup identification may withstand a due process challenge when there is an ...
  • Sibling
    Brother or sister.
  • Sidebar
    : sidebar conference [had failed to request a before injecting the collateral offense into the trial "Dockery v. State, 659 So. 2d 219 (1994)"] ;also : the place near or before the bench where a ...
  • Sidebar (Or Sidebar Conference)
    a discussion between the judge and lawyers held out of earshot of the jury and spectators.
  • Sidebar Conference
    : a conference between the judge, the lawyers, and sometimes the parties to a case that the jury does not hear
  • Sight
    : payable on presentation see also sight draft at draft
  • Sight Draft
    see draft
  • Sign
    1 : to affix a signature to : ratify or attest by hand or seal [ a bill into law] ;specif : to write or mark something (as a signature) on (a document) as an acknowledgment of one's intention to be ...
  • Signatory
    pl: -ries : a signer with another or others [signatories to a petition] ;esp : a government bound with others by a signed convention signatory adj
  • Signature
    1 a : the act of signing one's name or of making a mark in lieu thereof b : the name of a person written with his or her own hand to signify that the writing which precedes accords with his or her ...
  • Signature Crime
    : any of two or more crimes that involve the use of a method, plan, or modus operandi so distinctive that it logically follows that the crimes must have been committed by the same person NOTE: ...
  • Silence
    1 : the state of keeping or being silent ;esp : forbearance from speech or comment 2 : failure to make something known esp. in violation of a duty to do so [acceptance by ] see also estoppel by ...
  • Silent
    1 : making no utterance : resolved not to speak esp. about a certain topic [the right to remain ] 2 : making no mention or account : omitting explanation and leaving questions unanswered [a ...
  • Silent Partner
    see partner
  • Silent Record
    : a record of a criminal proceeding which does not show that the defendant acted with knowledge or understanding of his or her rights (as in entering a plea of guilty or waiving the right to counsel) ...
  • Silent Witness Theory
    : a theory or rule in the law of evidence: photographic evidence (as photographs or videotapes) produced by a process whose reliability is established may be admitted as substantive evidence of what ...
  • Simple
    1 : oral or written but not under seal or of record 2 : not extreme, aggravated, or complicated [ kidnapping] 3 : having no limitations or restrictions see also fee simple sim·ply adv
  • Simple Assault
    see assault
  • Simple Battery
    see battery
  • Simple Contract
    see contract
  • Simple Interest
    see interest
  • Simple Mortgage Clause
    : open mortgage clause
  • Simple Negligence
    see negligence
  • Simple Robbery
    see robbery
  • Simple Trust
    see trust
  • Simpliciter
    [Latin, from simplic- simplex simple] 1 : in a simple degree or manner : simply [was murder ] 2 : per se
  • Simplified Employee Pension
    : a pension that is funded by employer contributions or through a salary reduction arrangement and that places fewer administrative burdens on the employer than do other plans and allows employer ...
  • Simulate
    -lat·ed -lat·ing in the civil law of Louisiana : to make or carry out in a manner that does not express one's true intent [a simulated sale of the debtor's property in which no ...
  • Simulation
    in the civil law of Louisiana 1 : the act of simulating 2 : a contract that by mutual agreement does not express the true intent of the parties see also counterletter compare disguised donation at ...
  • Simultaneous Death Act
    : an act providing for the disposition of property or insurance benefits when there is no sufficient evidence that persons (as spouses) died other than simultaneously (as in an accident) NOTE: The ...
  • Single Publication Rule
    : a rule in the law of libel that treats an edition of a print source (as a magazine) as one publication giving rise to one cause of action for libel regardless of how many copies were printed and ...
  • Single-Act Statute
    : long-arm statute
  • Sinking Fund
    see fund
  • Sit
    sat sit·ting 1 : to occupy a place as a member of an official or formal body [ in Congress] [ on a board of directors] 2 : to hold a session : conduct official business [the court s in the ...
  • Situs
    [Latin, position, site, from sinere to leave in place, allow] : a location that is or is held to be the site of something (as property or a crime or tort) and that commonly determines jurisdiction ...
  • Skip Person
    : a person to whom property is transferred in a generation-skipping transfer ;also : a trust whose interests are all held by or may only be distributed to skip persons see also direct skip compare ...
  • Slander
    : to utter slander against slan·der·er n
  • Slander Of Goods
    :disparagement
  • Slander Of Title
    :a false and malicious written or spoken public statement disparaging a person's title to property that causes harm for which special damages may be awarded [damages for the filing of a fraudulent ...
  • Slight Negligence
    see negligence
  • Slip Law
    [slip from the fact that it was printed on a single piece of paper] : an initial separate publication of a new statute made prior to its inclusion in the general laws
  • Slip Opinion
    see opinion
  • Slowdown
    : a slowing down of business operations by employees [the term “strike” includes any strike…and any concerted "U.S. Code"]
  • Small Business
    : an independently owned and operated business that is not dominant in its field of operation and conforms to standards set by the Small Business Administration or by state law regarding number of ...
  • Small Business Administration
    The federal governmental agency that guarantees loans made by banks to small businesses
  • Small Business Case
    A special type of chapter 11 case in which there is no creditors' committee (or the creditors' committee is deemed inactive by the court) and in which the debtor is subject to more oversight by the ...
  • Small Business Corporation
    see corporation
  • Small Claim
    : a claim for the recovery of money or property whose value is below a certain amount
  • Small Claims Court
    : a special court intended to simplify and expedite the resolution of minor disputes involving small claims
  • Smart Money
    [smart pain] : punitive damages at damage
  • Smuggle
    smug·gled smug·gling vt : to import or export secretly and illegally esp. to avoid paying duties or to evade enforcement of laws [ drugs] [convicted of smuggling weapons] vi : to export or ...
  • Smurfing
    Smurfing is a method of attacking of a network or Web site, using a program called Smurf, whereby the network is flooded with generated requests to the point that it becomes unusable for actual ...
  • Social Contract
    : an actual or hypothetical agreement among individuals forming an organized society or between the community and the ruler that defines and limits the rights and duties of each
  • Social Guest
    : a person who comes onto the property of another on a social basis NOTE: A social guest can be either a licensee or an invitee. Some jurisdictions make no distinction, in effect categorizing all ...
  • Social Host
    : a person who furnishes another with alcohol in a social setting and not as a licensed vendor [courts…reluctant to impose liability on social hosts based on…negligence principles alone, ...
  • Social Insurance
    : insurance of the individual against certain hazards (as unemployment, old age, and disability) that is undertaken, facilitated, or enforced by government as a social policy
  • Social Security
    1 : the principle or practice or a program of public provision (as through social insurance or assistance) for the economic security and social welfare of the individual and his or her family ;esp ...
  • Social Security Disability Benefits (Ssdi)
    SSDI benefits are payable to disabled individuals through the Social Security Administration. Many state workers' compensation statutes have specific provisions which dictate whether an injured ...
  • Society
    pl: -ties 1 : the benefits of love, care, affection, and companionship that family members receive from each other [sought damages for loss of from his wife's wrongful death] compare consortium 2 : ...
  • Sodomy
    [Anglo-French sodomie sexual intercourse between men, from Old French, from Late Latin Sodoma Sodom, from the supposed homosexual practices of the men of the city in Genesis 19:1-11] : the crime of ...
  • Soft Goods
    see good
  • Solatium
    pl: -tia [-shē-ə] [Late Latin solacium solatium, from Latin, solace] : compensation for grief or wounded feelings (as from the wrongful death of a relative)
  • Sole
    : belonging exclusively or otherwise limited to one usually specified individual, unit, or group
  • Sole Custody
    see custody
  • Sole Proprietorship
    : a business owned and controlled by one person who is solely liable for its obligations compare corporation, partnership
  • Solicit
    1 : to make petition to [ the court] 2 : to ask, induce, advise, or command (a person) to do something and esp. to commit a crime compare coerce, importune 3 : to attempt to persuade (a person) to ...
  • Solicitation
    : an act or practice or an instance of soliciting [ of a proxy for a shareholder vote] ;specif : the crime of soliciting someone to commit a crime (as murder)
  • Solicitee
    : one that is solicited
  • Solicitor
    1 : one that solicits ;esp : an agent that solicits customers (as in insurance) or charitable contributions 2 : a British lawyer who advises clients, represents them in the lower courts, and ...
  • Solicitor General
    pl: solicitors general : a law officer appointed primarily to assist an attorney general ;also : a federal law officer responsible for representing the government in court and esp. the U.S. Supreme ...
  • Solidarity
    in the civil law of Louisiana : the quality or state of being solidary : existence of a solidary obligation [will not presume ]
  • Solidary
    [French solidaire characterized by community of interests, from Middle French, from Latin (in) solidum for the whole, involving all] in the civil law of Louisiana 1 : existing jointly and severally ...
  • Solidary Liability
    see liability
  • Solidary Obligation
    see obligation
  • Solvency
    : the quality or state of being solvent
  • Solvent
    : able to pay all legal debts as they become due
  • Son Of Sam Law
    [after Son of Sam, pseudonym of serial killer David Berkowitz, whose profits from the sale of his story a 1977 New York statute attempted to divert to his victims] : a law preventing criminals from ...
  • Sound
    1 a : free from injury or disease : exhibiting normal health b : free from flaw, defect, or decay [a design] 2 a : free from error, fallacy, or misapprehension [based on judicial reasoning] b : ...
  • Source
    1 : a point of origin [the of the conflict] 2 : one that supplies information [held the reporter in contempt for refusing to reveal her ]
  • Source Of Law
    :something (as a constitution, treaty, custom, or statute) that provides the authority for judicial decisions and for legislation ;specif : a labor contract as the source of authority for an ...
  • Sovereign
    also sov·ran [-vrən] n : a person or political entity (as a nation or state) possessing or held to possess sovereignty [a controversy between two s…the United States on the one hand ...
  • Sovereign Acts Doctrine
    : a doctrine granting the United States immunity from contractual obligations for acts performed in its sovereign capacity
  • Sovereign Immunity
    see immunity
  • Sovereignty
    also sov·ran·ty [sÄ -vrən-tē, sə-, -və-rən-] n pl: -ties 1 a : supreme power esp. over a body politic b : freedom from external control : autonomy 2 : ...
  • Sovran
    sovranty var of sovereign sovereignty
  • Speaker
    often cap : the presiding officer of a deliberative assembly [Speaker of the House of Representatives]
  • Speaking
    : addressing matters not set forth in the pleadings [a demurrer] [a motion]
  • Spec
    specced or: spec'd [spekt] spec·cing [spe-ki] : to write specifications for
  • Special
    1 : distinguished by some unusual quality [ circumstances justifying an award of attorney's fees] 2 : relating to a single thing or class of things : having an individual character or trait [owed ...
  • Special Act
    : an act of a legislature that is not of general application in all territory subject to the legislative power but affects private persons or only part of a class of persons in the same situation or ...
  • Special Administrator
    see administrator
  • Special Agency
    see agency
  • Special Agent
    see agent
  • Special Agricultural Worker
    Farm workers in perishable products who worked for a specified period of time and were able to adjust status to lawful permanent resident according to the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986.
  • Special Appearance
    : an appearance by a party in court for the sole purpose of challenging the court's assertion of personal jurisdiction over the party compare general appearance NOTE: Under the Federal Rules of Civil ...
  • Special Assessment
    : a specific tax levied on private property to meet the cost of public improvements that provide a special benefit enhancing the value of the property
  • Special Benefit
    see benefit
  • Special Contract
    see contract
  • Special Counsel
    : counsel appointed to fill a particular need ;specif cap : a government official charged with protecting employees from illegal practices by employers and esp. from employer reprisal for ...
  • Special Court-Martial
    : a court-martial that consists of at least three officers, a trial judge advocate, and a defense counsel and that has authority to impose a limited sentence and hear only noncapital cases compare ...
  • Special Damages
    see damage
  • Special Demurrer
    see demurrer
  • Special Deposit
    see deposit
  • Special District
    : a political subdivision of a state established to provide a single public service (as water supply or sanitation) within a specific geographical area
  • Special Duty Doctrine
    : an exception to the public duty doctrine that imposes liability for injury on a government entity when there is a special duty owed to the plaintiff but not to the public at large called also ...
  • Special Employee
    : an employee under workers' compensation law who is assigned by his or her employer to work for another employer
  • Special Employer
    : an employer under workers' compensation law that borrows an employee from another employer
  • Special Endorsement
    see endorsement
  • Special Exception
    : a use of property that is allowed under a zoning ordinance under specified conditions : conditional use at use
  • Special Facts Doctrine
    : a doctrine holding that a corporate officer with superior knowledge gained by virtue of being an insider owes a limited fiduciary duty to a shareholder in transactions involving transfer of stock
  • Special Finding
    see finding
  • Special Forbearance
    a loss mitigation option where the lender arranges a revised repayment plan for the borrower that may include a temporary reduction or suspension of monthly loan payments.
  • Special Grand Jury
    : a grand jury summoned by a court usually at its discretion in addition to or in place of the regular grand jury (as when the regular grand jury has already been discharged)
  • Special Guaranty
    : a guaranty made to a specific person and enforceable only by that person
  • Special Hazard Rule
    : an exception to the going and coming rule that allows an employee to recover from an employer for injuries sustained while going to or coming from work NOTE: The special hazard rule applies when ...
  • Special Immigrant
    A special category of immigrant visas for persons who lost their citizenship by marriage; persons who lost citizenship by serving in foreign armed forces; certain foreign medical school graduates; ...
  • Special Immigrants
    Certain categories of immigrants who were exempt from numerical limitation before fiscal year 1992 and subject to limitation under the employment-based fourth preference beginning in 1992; persons who ...
  • Special Interrogatory
    : an interrogatory addressed to a jury seeking a determination of a specific issue or issues of ultimate fact for the purpose of testing the deliberations and conclusions of the jury for consistency ...
  • Special Judge
    : a judge appointed to serve when a sitting judge is unable or unqualified to serve
  • Special Jury
    : a specially selected panel of jurors called upon request of a party from a list of presumably more intelligent or knowledgeable prospective jurors for a case involving complicated issues of fact or ...
  • Special Law
    1 : local law 2 : a law that applies to a particular place or esp. to a particular member or members of a class of persons or things in the same situation but not to the entire class and that is ...
  • Special Lien
    see lien
  • Special Master
    : master
  • Special Meeting
    : a meeting held for a special and limited purpose ;specif : a corporate meeting held occasionally in addition to the annual meeting to conduct only business described in a notice to the ...
  • Special Mission Exception
    : an exception to the going and coming rule that allows recovery under workers' compensation to an employee who was injured while going to or coming from work on an errand that was part of the ...
  • Special Mortgage
    see mortgage
  • Special Naturalization Provisions
    Provisions covering special classes of persons whom may be naturalized even though they do not meet all the general requirements for naturalization. Such special provisions allow: 1) wives or husbands ...
  • Special Permit
    : special exception
  • Special Power
    see power
  • Special Power Of Appointment
    see power of appointment
  • Special Power Of Attorney
    see power of attorney
  • Special Proceeding
    see proceeding
  • Special Prosecutor
    : a prosecutor appointed to prosecute particular cases that the regular prosecutor is unable or unqualified to prosecute or for other reasons does not prosecute see also independent counsel
  • Special Session
    : an extraordinary session (as of a court or a legislative body)
  • Special Tax
    : a tax levied to fund a particular government project or program
  • Special Use Permit
    : an authorization from an appropriate government body (as a zoning board) for a use of property that is a special exception : lawful approval for a special exception
  • Special Use Valuation
    : a method of valuation allowed under the Internal Revenue Code in calculating estate taxes on farm property or on real property used in a closely held business in which the property is valued on the ...
  • Special Verdict
    see verdict
  • Special Warranty Deed
    see deed
  • Specialty
    pl: -ties 1 from the special form of the contract : formal contract at contract 2 : a doctrine providing that a person extradited can be prosecuted only for the charges described in the order for ...
  • Specie
    [from in specie, from Latin, in kind] : money in coin in specie : in the identical form and without alteration or substitution [an agreement to be carried out in specie]
  • Specific
    1 : relating to a particular thing 2 : intended for or restricted to a particular end or object 3 : being of a particularly identified kind or nature spe·cif·i·cal·ly ...
  • Specific Bequest
    see bequest
  • Specific Denial
    see denial
  • Specific Devise
    see devise
  • Specific Intent
    see intent
  • Specific Jurisdiction
    see jurisdiction
  • Specific Legacy
    see legacy
  • Specific Lien
    see lien
  • Specific Performance
    see performance
  • Specification
    : a detailed precise presentation of something or of a plan or proposal for something: as a : a written statement containing a description of particulars (as of charges or contract terms) b : a ...
  • Specimen
    A real-world example of how the mark is actually used on goods or in the offer of services. Labels, tags, or containers for goods are considered to be acceptable specimens of use for a trademark.
  • Specs
    : specifications
  • Speculate
    -lat·ed -lat·ing vi 1 : to theorize on the basis of insufficient evidence NOTE: A jury is not permitted to speculate on a matter about which insufficient evidence has been presented in ...
  • Speculation
    : an act or instance of speculating: as a : assumption of unusual business risk in hopes of obtaining commensurate gain b : a transaction involving such speculation
  • Speculative
    1 : involving, based on, or constituting intellectual speculation ;also : theoretical rather than demonstrable [ medical testimony concerning the cause of death] 2 : of, relating to, or being a ...
  • Speculative Risk
    : a risk that may result in either a loss or a gain compare pure risk
  • Speech
    : words or conduct used to communicate or express a thought : expression see also commercial speech, freedom of speech, free speech, obscene, symbolic speech Amendment I to the Constitution in the ...
  • Speech Or Debate Clause
    often cap S&D&C : a clause in Article I of the U.S. Constitution granting members of Congress a privilege from arrest and legislative immunity for any speech or debate made in either of the ...
  • Speedy Trial
    : a trial conducted according to prevailing rules and procedures that takes place without unreasonable or undue delay or within a statutory period NOTE: The right to a speedy trial is guaranteed to ...
  • Spending Power
    see power
  • Spendthrift
    : a person who spends money foolishly, profusely, or wastefully
  • Spendthrift Trust
    see trust
  • Spielberg Doctrine
    [after the Spielberg Manufacturing Company, subject of an unfair labor practice complaint that prompted the formation of the doctrine] : a doctrine in labor law: the National Labor Relations Board ...
  • Spin-Off
    : a transfer of corporate assets to a subsidiary in return for a distribution to the shareholders of the corporation of all of the stock or controlling stock of the subsidiary without surrender of ...
  • Split
    split split·ting : to divide into parts or portions: as a : to divide into factions, parties, or groups b : to mark (a ballot) or cast or register (a vote) so as to vote for candidates of ...
  • Split Custody
    A form of custody (generally not looked upon favorably) in which some or one of the parties' children is/are in the custody of one parent and the remaining child(ren) is/are in the custody of the ...
  • Split Gift
    see gift
  • Split Sentence
    see sentence
  • Split-Funded Plan
    : a retirement plan combining life insurance and an investment fund
  • Split-Off
    : a transfer of corporate assets to a subsidiary involving the surrender of a part of the stock owned by the corporation's shareholders in exchange for controlling stock of the subsidiary : a D ...
  • Split-Up
    : a transfer by a corporation of all its assets in complete liquidation to two or more subsidiaries that involves the surrender of all stock by the shareholders in exchange for new stock in the ...
  • Spoliation
    1 : the destruction, alteration, or mutilation of evidence esp. by a party for whom the evidence is damaging 2 : alteration or mutilation of an instrument (as a will) by one who is not a party to ...
  • Spoliator
    : one who spoils or damages the value of something
  • Sponsor
    1 : a legislator who introduces and supports a legislative proposal (as a bill or amendment) 2 : a person who assumes responsibility for some other person (as an immigrant) or thing 3 a : one that ...
  • Sponsored Immigrant
    An immigrant who has had an affidavit of support filed for him/her.
  • Spontaneous Declaration
    see declaration
  • Spontaneous Exclamation
    : spontaneous declaration at declaration
  • Spontaneous Utterance
    : spontaneous declaration at declaration
  • Spot Zoning
    : the usually illegal rezoning of a small parcel of land within the limits of another zone that is illegal when not done in accord with a comprehensive zoning plan or when arbitrary or discriminatory ...
  • Spousal Support Or Maintenance
    Financial payments made to help support a spouse or former spouse during separation or following divorce. Also called alimony.
  • Spouse
    Legally married husband or wife. A co-habiting partner does not qualify as a spouse for immigration purposes. A common-law husband or wife may or may not qualify as a spouse for immigration purposes, ...
  • Spray
    : to disperse among a number of recipients [authorized to trust income "W. M. McGovern, Jr. et al."]
  • Spread
    1 a : the difference between any two prices for similar articles [the between the list price and the market price of an article] b : the difference between the highest and lowest prices of a product ...
  • Springing Use
    see use
  • Sprinkle
    sprin·kled sprin·kling : spray
  • Square
    : fitting the factual or legal situation at bar [we have been shown no holding of a Florida court to that effect "Milhet Caterers, Inc. v. North Western Meat, Inc., 185 So. 2d 196 (1966)"] ...
  • Squatter
    : a person who occupies real property without a claim of right or title NOTE: In most jurisdictions, a squatter cannot gain title to land through adverse possession because adverse possession ...
  • Squeezeout
    : a corporate action or series of actions (as a refusal to declare dividends or the restricting of decision-making power in corporate governance) through which majority shareholders deprive minority ...
  • Ss
    [Latin scilicet that is to say] specifically used in the statement of venue which follows the caption of a legal document and esp. between the name of the state and the particular subdivision (as ...
  • Ssi
    supplemental security income
  • Ssl
    Acronym for Secure Sockets Layer. SSL is a widely used protocol for securing the transmission of a message over the Internet.
  • Stake
    1 : the subject matter (as property or an obligation) of an interpleader 2 : an interest or share in an esp. commercial undertaking
  • Stakeholder
    1 : a person holding property or owing an obligation that is claimed by two or more adverse claimants and who has no claim to or interest in the property or obligation [the can interplead the ...
  • Stale
    : impaired in legal effect or force by reason of not being used, acted upon, or demanded in a timely fashion [the search warrant was invalid because it was based on information] [a claim]
  • Stalk
    : to subject to stalking vi : to engage in stalking stalk·er n
  • Stalking
    : the act or crime of willfully and repeatedly following or harassing another person in circumstances that would cause a reasonable person to fear injury or death esp. because of express or implied ...
  • Stamp
    : an official mark or seal set on something (as a deed) chargeable with a government or state duty or tax or on papers requiring execution under certain conditions to signify that the duty or tax has ...
  • Stamp Tax
    : a tax collected by means of a stamp purchased and affixed (as to a deed)
  • Stand
    stood stand·ing vi 1 : to be in a particular state or situation [ accused] 2 : to remain valid or effective [let the ruling ] vt : to submit to [ trial] stand in judgment : to submit to the ...
  • Standard
    1 : something established by authority, custom, or general consent as a model, example, or point of reference [the of the reasonable person] 2 : something established by authority as a rule for the ...
  • Standard Deduction
    see deduction
  • Standard Mortgage Clause
    : a mortgage clause that is usually considered to form a separate contract between the insurer and mortgagee under which the mortgagee can collect payment even if the policy is void or voidable with ...
  • Standard Of Care
    :the degree of care or competence that one is expected to exercise in a particular circumstance or role
  • Standard Of Proof
    :the level of certainty and the degree of evidence necessary to establish proof in a criminal or civil proceeding [the standard of proof to convict is proof beyond a reasonable doubt] see also clear ...
  • Standard Other Insurance Clause
    : pro rata clause
  • Standby Letter Of Credit
    see letter of credit
  • Standing
    : continuing in existence, use, or effect indefinitely [a order]
  • Standing Committee
    : a permanent committee ;esp : one in a house or senate with jurisdiction over legislation in a particular area (as the judiciary or the armed services)
  • Standstill Agreement
    : an agreement providing for the preservation of the status quo for a specified or indefinite period: as a : an agreement under which litigation is forestalled between two parties b : an agreement ...
  • Star Chamber
    1 cap S&C : an old English court abolished in 1641 that exercised wide civil and criminal jurisdiction under rules of procedure suited to the prerogatives of the king and that was marked by ...
  • Stare Decisis
    [New Latin, to stand by things that have been settled] : the doctrine under which courts adhere to precedent on questions of law in order to insure certainty, consistency, and stability in the ...
  • Stat.
    statutes
  • State
    often attrib 1 a : a politically organized body of people usually occupying a definite territory ;esp : one that is sovereign b : the political organization that has supreme civil authority and ...
  • State Action
    1 : an action that is either taken directly by the state or bears a sufficient connection to the state to be attributed to it NOTE: State actions are subject to judicial scrutiny for violations of ...
  • State Bank
    see bank
  • State Court
    : a court established in accordance with a state constitution and having jurisdiction to adjudicate matters of state law
  • State Courts
    courts established by various state governments, including county and local courts.
  • State Law
    : the law of a state ;specif : a law or body of laws promulgated by a state legislature
  • State Of Mind Exception
    : an exception to the hearsay rule that allows the use of hearsay evidence regarding the state of mind of the declarant (as in a statement of intent or motive)
  • State Prison
    : a prison maintained by a state esp. to incarcerate those convicted of serious crimes (as felonies)
  • State Workforce Agency
    The agency or bureau in each State that deals with employment and labor issues. For the address of workforce agency in each State go to the U.S. Department of Labor Foreign Labor Certification site.
  • State's Attorney
    : a district attorney that represents a state compare united states attorney
  • State's Evidence
    : a participant or accomplice in a crime who gives evidence to the prosecution esp. in return for a reduced sentence used chiefly in the phrase turn state's evidence
  • Stated Capital
    see capital
  • Stated Value
    : the value assigned in a corporation's books to stock and esp. to no-par value stock NOTE: Stated value is sometimes based on the actual amount received when stock is issued, but it can also be an ...
  • Stateless
    Having no nationality.
  • Statement
    1 a : an official or formal report or declaration [a of policy] b : an oral or written assertion (as by a witness) or conduct intended as an assertion see also hearsay, prior consistent statement, ...
  • Statement Of Financial Affairs
    A series of questions the debtor must answer in writing, concerning sources of income, transfers of property, lawsuits by creditors, etc. (There is an official form a debtor must use.)
  • Statement Of Intention
    A declaration made by a chapter 7 debtor concerning plans for dealing with consumer debts that are secured by property of the estate.
  • Statement Of Use
    A sworn statement signed by a trademark applicant or a person authorized to sign on behalf of the applicant attesting to use of the mark in commerce.
  • States' Rights
    1 : rights and powers not forbidden to the states nor vested in the federal government by the U.S. Constitution 2 sing in constr : a doctrine based on states' rights that has been used to justify ...
  • Statewide Average Weekly Wage (Saww)
    The statewide average weekly wage is a computation of average wages paid to workers in a jurisdiction for a set period of time and is generally used to calculate the minimum, and maximum, amounts of ...
  • Static Ip Address
    A Static IP Address is an IP Address whose numbers represent a permanent address on the Web. When the Internet was initially established, only a finite number of IP addresses were created. Because the ...
  • Status
    [Latin, mode or condition of being, from stare to stand] 1 a : the condition of a person or a thing in the eyes of the law b : position or rank in relation to others 2 : a state of affairs [the of ...
  • Status Offender
    : a juvenile under the jurisdiction of the court because of acts that would not be criminal if committed by an adult but that indicate the child is beyond parental control compare juvenile ...
  • Status Quo
    [Latin, state in which] : the existing state of affairs ;specif : the last actual and uncontested state of affairs that preceded a controversy and that is to be preserved by preliminary injunction ...
  • Status Quo Ante
    [Latin, state in which previously] : the state of affairs that existed previously [rescind the contract and restore the parties to the status quo ante]
  • Statute
    [Latin statutum law, regulation, from neuter of statutus, past participle of statuere to set up, station, from status position, state] 1 : a law enacted by the legislative branch of a government see ...
  • Statute Law
    : statutory law
  • Statute Of Frauds
    1 often cap S&F a : a state law modeled on the English Statute of Frauds or dealing with the enforcement and requirements of agreements in particular circumstances see also Statute of Frauds in ...
  • Statute Of Limitation
    :statute of limitations
  • Statute Of Limitations
    1 a : a statute establishing a period of time from the accrual of a cause of action (as upon the occurrence or discovery of an injury) within which a right of action must be exercised compare laches, ...
  • Statute Of Mortmain
    :mortmain statute
  • Statute Of Repose
    :
  • Statutory
    1 : of or relating to a statute or statutes [a provision] 2 : enacted, created, regulated, or defined by statute [a presumption] [a insider] stat·u·to·ri·ly ...
  • Statutory Employee
    : one (as a contractor or person working under a contractor) who does work for a statutory employer from whom he or she is entitled to the exclusive remedy of workers' compensation benefits
  • Statutory Employer
    : one who employs another (as a contractor) to perform work in the course of a business and who is liable for workers' compensation according to a statute establishing such an employment relationship ...
  • Statutory Foreclosure
    : a foreclosure in which a mortgagee or trustee executes a power of sale given in a mortgage or deed of trust and does so in accordance with statutory provisions compare strict foreclosure
  • Statutory Guardian
    see guardian
  • Statutory Law
    : the law that exists in legislatively enacted statutes esp. as distinguished from common law compare common law
  • Statutory Lien
    see lien
  • Statutory Merger
    see merger
  • Statutory Omnibus Clause
    : a statutory provision requiring that coverage of an automobile insurance policy be extended to a person using the vehicle with the express or implied permission of the insured compare omnibus ...
  • Statutory Rape
    : rape consisting of sexual intercourse with a person beneath an age (as 14 years) specified by statute NOTE: Many state statutes also specify a minimum age of the perpetrator or an age differential ...
  • Statutory Rule Against Perpetuities
    :a statute setting forth the requirements for the vesting of a future interest in property and superseding the common-law rule against perpetuities ;esp : a uniform statute invalidating a future ...
  • Stay
    stayed stay·ing : to temporarily suspend or prevent by judicial or executive order [may not grant an injunction to proceedings in a state court "U.S. Code"]
  • Steal
    stole sto·len steal·ing [Old English stelan] : to take or appropriate without right or consent and with intent to keep or make use of see also robbery, theft
  • Step Transaction Doctrine
    : a doctrine in tax law: a series of separate but related transactions may be viewed as a single transaction and the tax liability may be based on that transaction rather than the individual ...
  • Stepchild
    A spouse's child from a previous marriage or other relationship. In order for a stepchild to be able to immigrate as a "child," the marriage creating the stepchild/stepparent relationship must have ...
  • Stepped-Up Basis
    see basis
  • Stet
    [Latin, let it stand, third person singular present subjunctive of stare to stand] : an order staying all proceedings in an action used esp. in Maryland
  • Steward
    : shop steward
  • Sting
    : an elaborate confidence game ;specif : such a game worked by undercover police in order to catch criminals
  • Stipulate
    -lat·ed -lat·ing [Latin stipulatus, past participle of stipulari to exact (as from a prospective debtor) a formal guarantee when making an oral contract] vi 1 : to make an agreement or ...
  • Stipulated Authority
    see authority
  • Stipulated Damages
    see damage
  • Stipulation
    1 : an act of stipulating 2 : something stipulated: as a : an agreement between parties regarding some aspect of a legal proceeding [a of facts] [admitted the charges in a prehearing "New York Law ...
  • Stipulation Pour Autrui
    [French, stipulation for other persons] in the civil law of Louisiana : a contract or provision in a contract that confers a benefit on a third-party beneficiary NOTE: A stipulation pour autrui gives ...
  • Stipulator
    1 : one that stipulates 2 in the civil law of Louisiana : the promisee in a stipulation pour autrui who bargains for and receives the promise that benefits the third-party beneficiary
  • Stirpital
    : of or relating to per stirpes distribution
  • Stock
    1 a : the equipment, materials, or supplies of a business b : a store or supply accumulated ;esp : the inventory of the goods of a merchant or manufacturer 2 : the ownership element in a ...
  • Stock Appreciation Right
    : a form of deferred compensation that allows an employee to receive as a bonus the cash value of the appreciation of stock over a period of years and that defers taxation until paid
  • Stock Bonus Plan
    : a form of deferred compensation that is funded by employer contributions of corporate securities with dividends usually reinvested
  • Stock Exchange
    1 : a place where security trading is conducted on an organized system 2 : an association or group of people organized to provide an auction market among themselves for the purchase and sale of ...
  • Stock In Trade
    :the equipment, merchandise, or materials necessary to or used in a trade or business
  • Stock Index
    : an index that tracks the performance of a particular group of stocks
  • Stock Manipulation
    : illicit behavior that creates or attempts to give the appearance of active trading in a security (as to induce others to buy or sell)
  • Stock Market
    1 : stock exchange 2 : a market for particular stocks 3 : the market for stocks throughout a country
  • Stock Option
    see option
  • Stock Option Plan
    : a form of deferred compensation that allows an employee to buy corporate stock at a set price (as the prevailing market price at the time of the contract) at any time (as when the market price has ...
  • Stock Options
    A type of retirement plan in which employees have the opportunity to purchase stock in the company for which they work
  • Stock Power
    see power
  • Stock Split
    : the division of the outstanding shares of a corporation into a larger number of shares thereby reducing the value of each share but not the total value of each holding compare reverse stock split ...
  • Stockholder
    : an owner of corporate stock compare bondholder stock·hold·ing n or adj
  • Stockholder Of Record
    :the person who is recorded on the books of a company as the owner of stock and who may be an agent or trustee for the true owner
  • Stockholders' Equity
    the sum of proceeds from the issuance of stock and retained earnings less amounts paid to repurchase common shares.
  • Stole
    past of steal
  • Stolen
    past part of steal
  • Stood
    past and past part of stand
  • Stop
    stopped stop·ping vt 1 : to cause to halt [stopped payment] 2 : to subject to a legal stop vi : to cease activity or motion
  • Stop And Frisk Statute
    : a state law that allows a police officer to stop any person without making an arrest based on a reasonable suspicion that the person has committed or is about to commit a crime
  • Stop Order
    see order
  • Stop Payment
    : a depositor's order to a bank to refuse to honor a specified check drawn by him or her
  • Stoppage In Transitu
    [Latin in transitu in passing from one place to another] : the right of a seller of goods to stop them on their way to the buyer and resume possession of them (as on discovery of the buyer's ...
  • Stowaway
    An alien coming to the United States surreptitiously on an airplane or vessel without legal status of admission. Such an alien is subject to denial of formal admission and return to the point of ...
  • Straddle
    : the purchase of an equal number of put options and call options on the same underlying securities with the same price and maturity date
  • Straight Bill Of Lading
    see bill of lading
  • Straight Deductible
    : a deductible that is a constant value (as a specified amount)
  • Straight Life Annuity
    see annuity
  • Straight Life Insurance
    see life insurance
  • Straight Voting
    : a system of voting for corporate directors in which each shareholder may cast one vote for each share of stock owned for each seat in contention compare cumulative voting
  • Straight-Line
    : marked by equal payments over a given term [using the method of depreciation]
  • Straight-Line Depreciation
    see depreciation
  • Stranger
    : someone who is not a party or in privity with a party (as to a contract or legal action) [may be enforced against a to the contract]
  • Straw Man
    : an intermediary for a transaction (as a conveyance of real property)
  • Street Name
    : a brokerage firm's name in which securities owned by another (as an individual investor) are listed (as to expedite transfer at time of sale by avoiding handling of the actual certificates)
  • Stretch-Out
    : a labor practice in which workers are required to do extra work with slight or no additional pay
  • Strict
    1 : characterized by narrowness : not demonstrating a broad or liberal view [ interpretation] 2 a : firm or rigid in requirement or control b : severe in discipline 3 a : inflexibly maintained or ...
  • Strict Construction
    : interpretation (as of a writing or legislation) based on a literal or technical understanding of the words used
  • Strict Foreclosure
    1 : a proceeding in which the amount due on a mortgage is determined and a period of time within which it must be paid is fixed with the understanding that in the event of the mortgagor's default ...
  • Strict Liability
    see liability
  • Strict Scrutiny
    : the highest level of judicial scrutiny that is applied esp. to a law that allegedly violates equal protection in order to determine if it is narrowly tailored to serve a compelling state interest ...
  • Stricti Juris
    [Latin] : according to or determined by strict interpretation of the law [the rights of a guarantor are stricti juris "Sitzer v. Lang, 243 S.E.2d 95 (1978)"]
  • Strictissimi Juris
    [Latin] : according to the strictest interpretation of the law
  • Strike
    struck struck also: strick·en strik·ing vi 1 : to remove or delete something 2 : to stop work in order to force an employer to comply with demands vt 1 : to remove or delete from a legal ...
  • Strike Down
    : annul nullify [the trustee…can strike down transfers "J. J. White and R. S. Summers"] ;esp : to declare (a law) illegal and unenforceable [the court struck down death penalty provisions ...
  • Strike Fund
    see fund
  • Strike Suit
    : a derivative action based on no bona fide claim and brought with the intent to force defendants to settle out of court
  • Strikebreaker
    : an individual hired to replace a striking worker
  • Strip
    pl: STRIPs [separate trading of registered interest and principal of securities] : a Treasury security that entitles the investor usually to payment of interest or principal exclusively and that is ...
  • Strip Search
    see search
  • Stripped Mbs (Smbs)
    securities created by "stripping" or separating the principal and interest payments from the underlying pool of mortgages into two classes of securities, with each receiving a different proportion of ...
  • Strong Mark
    : a trademark or service mark that is distinctive and is used in a fictitious, arbitrary, or fanciful manner in connection with a product compare weak mark NOTE: A strong mark is afforded greater ...
  • Struck
    past and past part of strike
  • Struck Jury
    1 : a jury that is selected from a venire of usually forty people from which potential jurors are struck by attorneys for each side alternately until a specified number (as twelve) of jurors are left ...
  • Student
    As a nonimmigrant class of admission, an alien coming temporarily to the United States to pursue a full course of study in an approved program in either an academic (college, university, seminary, ...
  • Sua Sponte
    [Latin, of its own accord] : on the court's own motion or initiative [authorize the court to order a new trial sua sponte "J. H. Friedenthal et al."] [the court's sua sponte dismissal]
  • Suable
    : capable of being or liable to be sued
  • Sub Judice
    [Latin] : before the court : at bar [in the case sub judice]
  • Sub Nom.
    sub nomine
  • Sub Nomine
    [Latin] : under the name of [the testator made him a trustee sub nomine “Charlie Smith”] often used in full or abbreviated form in legal citations to indicate the name under which the ...
  • Sub Silentio
    [Latin] : under or in silence : without notice being taken or without making a particular point of the matter in question [overruled sub silentio this court's holding in Collora "State v. Olsen, 498 ...
  • Sub-
    1 : under : beneath : below [substandard] 2 a : subordinate : secondary : next lower than or inferior to [subagent] b : subordinate portion of : subdivision of [subchapter] [subcommittee] c : ...
  • Sub-Prime Loan
    "B" Loan or "B" paper with FICO scores from 620 - 659. "C" Loan or "C" Paper with FICO scores typically from 580 to 619. An industry term to used to describe loans with less stringent lending and ...
  • Subagent
    : an agent who is appointed by another agent (as an insurance agent) and for whom the principal agent is responsible or liable
  • Subchapter
    : a subdivision of a chapter (as of a statute or code)
  • Subchapter S
    : a subchapter of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code that allows a small business corporation's taxable income to be computed in a manner similar to that used for a partnership see also S ...
  • Subchapter S Corporation
    A corporation that has elected under Subchapter S of the Internal Revenue Code not to pay any corporate taxes on its earnings, and instead to have its shareholders pay taxes on it
  • Subcommittee
    : a subdivision of a committee that is assigned a portion of the committee's jurisdiction, holds hearings, amends legislation, and reports to the committee
  • Subcontract
    : a contract between a party to an original contract and a third party that assigns part of the performance (as building a house) of the original contract to the third party subcontract ...
  • Subcontractor
    : one (as an individual or business) that contracts to perform part or all of the obligations of another's contract
  • Subdivide
    : to divide into several parts ;specif : to divide (a tract of land) into two or more lots for sale or building development
  • Subdivision
    1 : an act or instance of subdividing [obtain approval of his of the land] 2 : a tract of land subdivided into lots [to provide streets and sewers for the ] 3 : a part made by subdividing [as ...
  • Subject
    : the person upon whose life a life insurance policy is written and upon whose death the policy is payable : insured compare beneficiary, policyholder
  • Subject Matter Jurisdiction
    see jurisdiction
  • Subject To The Numerical Limit
    Categories of legal immigrants subject to annual limits under the provisions of the flexible numerical limit of 675,000 set by the Immigration Act of 1990. The largest categories are: family-sponsored ...
  • Sublease
    : a lease that is given by a tenant or lessee to another person of part or all of the leased premises for a shorter term than that of the original lease and under which some interest is retained ...
  • Sublessee
    : a lessee under a sublease
  • Sublessor
    : one that grants a sublease
  • Sublet
    -let -let·ting vt : to make or obtain a sublease of vi : to lease all or part of a leased property
  • Sublicense
    : a license granted by a licensee that grants some or all of the rights (as to a patent) acquired under the original license sublicense vb
  • Sublimit
    : a liability limit in an insurance policy for a particular risk (as loss of jewelry by theft) that is below the aggregate liability limit of the policy
  • Submissible
    : sufficient for submission to a trier of fact : capable of being submitted for decision [the claimant has the burden of proving a case "Manor Square, Inc. v. Heartthrob of Kansas City, Inc., 854 ...
  • Submission
    1 : an agreement to submit a dispute to and abide by the decision of an arbitrator [an award falls within the general rule that acts of arbitrators must…be coextensive with the "Albert v. Goor, ...
  • Submit
    sub·mit·ted sub·mit·ting vt 1 : to yield or subject to control or authority [to himself to the jurisdiction of the tribal court "Sheppard v. Sheppard, 655 P.2d 895 (1982)"] 2 a : ...
  • Subordinate
    1 : placed in or occupying a lower rank, class, or position 2 : submissive to or controlled by authority
  • Subordination
    : an act or instance of subordinating ;also : the remedy of subordinating a claim see also equitable subordination
  • Subordination Agreement
    : an agreement by which one party subordinates its claim to that of another
  • Suborn
    [Latin subornare, from sub- secretly + ornare to prepare, equip] 1 : to induce or procure to commit an unlawful act and esp. perjury [an attempt to a witness] 2 : to induce (perjury) or obtain ...
  • Subornation
    : an act or instance of suborning [ of perjured statements] [to protect witnesses from intimidation and "WBZ-TV4 v. DA for the Suffolk Dist., 562 N.E.2d 817 (1990)"] NOTE: Subornation of perjury is a ...
  • Subpoena
    also sub·pe·na [sə-pē-nə] n [Latin sub poena under penalty] : a writ commanding a designated person upon whom it has been served to appear (as in court or before a ...
  • Subpoena Duces Tecum
    [New Latin, under penalty you shall bring with you] : a subpoena that commands the production of specified evidence in a person's possession NOTE: Unlike a search warrant, a subpoena duces tecum can ...
  • Subrogate
    -gat·ed -gat·ing [Latin subrogatus, past participle of subrogare surrogare to elect as a substitute, from sub- under + rogare to request] : to put in the place of another by the doctrine of ...
  • Subrogation
    1 : an equitable doctrine holding that when a third party pays a creditor or obligee the third party succeeds to the creditor's rights against the debtor or obligor ;also : a doctrine holding that ...
  • Subrogee
    : the party (as a second creditor) that succeeds to another's rights by subrogation
  • Subrogor
    : the party (as an insured) that yields his or her rights to another (as an insurer) by subrogation
  • Subscribe
    sub·scribed sub·scrib·ing [Latin subscribere, literally, to write beneath, from sub- under + scribere to write] vt 1 : to write (one's name) underneath or at the end of a document [we ...
  • Subscription
    1 : the act of signing one's name (as in attesting or witnessing a document) 2 : something that is subscribed ;specif : a sum subscribed or pledged [a charitable ] 3 : an agreement to purchase ...
  • Subsequent
    : following in time, order, or space see also condition subsequent at condition compare precedent
  • Subsidiary
    pl: -ar·ies : a company having the majority of its stock owned by another company compare affiliate NOTE: The parent company of a subsidiary generally has the same policy-making powers as any ...
  • Substance
    1 : substantive law [was a question of and not process] compare procedure 2 : something (as language) essential esp. to establishing a valid right, claim, or charge [a title defective in form, not ...
  • Substandard
    : deviating from or falling short of a standard or norm: as a : of a quality lower than that prescribed by law b : constituting a greater than normal risk to an insurer
  • Substantial
    1 a : of or relating to substance b : not illusory : having merit [failed to raise a constitutional claim] c : having importance or significance : material [a step had not been taken toward ...
  • Substantial Capacity Test
    : a test used in many jurisdictions when considering an insanity defense which relieves a defendant of criminal responsibility if at the time of the crime as a result of mental disease or defect the ...
  • Substantial Compliance
    : compliance with the substantial or essential requirements of something (as a statute or contract) that satisfies its purpose or objective even though its formal requirements are not complied with
  • Substantial Evidence
    see evidence
  • Substantial Factor
    : an important or significant factor that is not necessarily the only factor leading to a plaintiff's injury but is sufficient to have caused the injury by itself compare but-for
  • Substantial Justice
    : justice of a sufficient degree esp. to satisfy a standard of fairness ;also : justice administered according to the substance and not necessarily the form of the law [all pleadings shall be so ...
  • Substantial Performance
    see performance
  • Substantial Right
    : an important or essential right that merits enforcement or protection by the law : a right related to a matter of substance as distinguished from a matter of form
  • Substantive
    1 : of or relating to a matter of substance as opposed to form or procedure [a issue] [the instructions to the jury] [was dismissed on procedural and grounds] compare procedural 2 : affecting ...
  • Substantive Consolidation
    Putting the assets and liabilities of two or more related debtors into a single pool to pay creditors. (Courts are reluctant to allow substantive consolidation since the action must not only justify ...
  • Substantive Crime
    : a crime that does not have as an element the performance of some other crime : a crime that is not dependent on another [indicted and convicted of conspiracy to attempt to enter the bank and the ...
  • Substantive Due Process
    : due process
  • Substantive Evidence
    see evidence
  • Substantive Law
    : law that creates or defines rights, duties, obligations, and causes of action that can be enforced by law compare adjective law, procedural law NOTE: There are restrictions on applying new ...
  • Substantive Offense
    : substantive crime
  • Substantive Right
    : a right arising from substantive law
  • Substantive Rule
    : legislative rule
  • Substantive Unconscionability
    : unconscionability of a contract that arises from the terms of the contract and esp. from terms that are found to be one-sided, unjust, or overly harsh compare procedural unconscionability
  • Substitute Gift
    : substitutional gift at gift
  • Substituted Basis
    see basis
  • Substituted Contract
    see contract
  • Substituted Judgment
    see judgment
  • Substituted Service
    : the service of a writ, process, or summons otherwise than by personal service (as by mail or publication or by leaving it at a defendant's place of business or residence or with an agent) called ...
  • Substitution
    : the substituting of one person or thing for another: as a in the civil law of Louisiana : a disposition not in trust by which a donee, heir, or legatee is charged to hold property transferred and ...
  • Substitutional Gift
    see gift
  • Subsurety
    : one who is a surety along with another surety who may be liable for the entire loss upon the default of the principal
  • Subsuretyship
    : the relation between two or more sureties who are bound to answer for the same duty where one has the whole duty of performance with respect to the other
  • Subtenancy
    1 : the quality or state of being a subtenant 2 : the interest in property that one holds as a subtenant
  • Subtenant
    : one who rents property from a tenant of the property
  • Subversion
    : a systematic attempt to overthrow or undermine a government or political system by persons working from within ;also : the crime of committing acts in furtherance of such an attempt ...
  • Succeed
    1 : to come next after another in office or position 2 a : to take something by succession [ed to his mother's estate] b : to acquire the rights, obligations, and charges of a decedent in property ...
  • Succession
    1 a : the order in which or the conditions under which one person after another succeeds to a property, dignity, position, title, or throne [the sequence of to the presidency] b : the right of a ...
  • Succession Tax
    1 : estate tax 2 : inheritance tax
  • Successive
    1 a : of or relating to succession [ rights] b : created by succession 2 : following in order : following each other without interruption [ bankruptcy filings] 3 : of, relating to, or being a ...
  • Successive Tortfeasor
    : any of two or more tortfeasors whose negligent acts are independent though causing injury to the same third party
  • Successor
    : one that follows : one that succeeds another (as in a position, title, office, or estate)
  • Successor In Interest
    :a successor to another's interest in property ;esp : a successor in ownership of a business that is carried on and controlled substantially as it was before the transfer
  • Sudden Emergency Doctrine
    : a doctrine of tort law: a person who is confronted with a sudden and unexpected perilous situation not of his or her own making and who acts as would a reasonably prudent person under the ...
  • Sudden Heat
    : heat of passion
  • Sudden Heat Of Passion
    :heat of passion
  • Sudden Passion
    : heat of passion
  • Sue
    sued su·ing [Anglo-French suer suire, literally, to follow, pursue, from Old French sivre, ultimately from Latin sequi to follow] vt : to bring an action against : seek justice from by legal ...
  • Sue Out
    : to apply for and obtain in judicial proceedings [sued out a summons]
  • Sue-And-Labor Clause
    : a clause in marine insurance contracts by which the insured agrees to take steps necessary to safeguard the covered property from loss or to minimize losses that occur and the insurer agrees to pay ...
  • Sufferance
    : consent or sanction implied by a lack of interference or failure to enforce a prohibition see also estate at sufferance at estate tenancy at sufferance at tenancy
  • Sufficiency
    : the quality or state of being sufficient [the of the evidence to convict]
  • Sufficient
    : enough to meet the needs under the law of a situation or a proposed end suf·fi·cient·ly adv
  • Sufficient Cause
    see cause
  • Suffrage
    [Latin suffragium vote, political support, from suffragari to support with one's vote] 1 : a vote in deciding a controverted question or the choice of a person for an office or trust [no ...
  • Suggest
    1 : to mention or imply as a possibility 2 : to enter on the record as a suggestion
  • Suggestion
    1 a : the act or process of suggesting b : something suggested 2 : an entry on the record of a fact or circumstance (as the death or insolvency of a party) material to a case and essential for the ...
  • Suggestive
    : giving a suggestion or making a hint: as a : being a trademark, trade dress, trade name, or service mark that requires the consumer to use thought and imagination to perceive the nature of the ...
  • Suggestive Mark
    A mark that, when applied to the goods or services at issue, requires imagination, thought or perception to reach a conclusion as to the nature of those goods or services.
  • Sui Generis
    [Latin, of its own kind] : constituting a class alone : unique or particular to itself [the lawyer's…ad that makes no distinction among various legal and factual nuances in each sui generis ...
  • Sui Juris
    [Latin, of one's own right] 1 : having full legal capacity to act on one's own behalf : not subject to the authority of another 2 : qualified to enjoy full rights of citizenship (as of holding ...
  • Suicide Clause
    : a provision limiting the liability of an insurer to a return of net premiums paid if an insured commits suicide within a stipulated period
  • Suit
    [Anglo-French siute suite suit request to initiate legal proceedings, literally, pursuit, from siute, feminine past participle of suire to follow, from Old French sivre see sue ] : a proceeding to ...
  • Suitor
    1 : a party to a suit 2 : one that seeks to take over a business [approved the merger before the obtained a 10% stake "Wall Street Journal"]
  • Sum Certain
    : an amount that can be determined with certainty from the information presented (as on a negotiable instrument) without resort to outside sources
  • Summary
    : done immediately, concisely, and without usual formal procedures ;esp : used in or done by summary proceeding compare plenary sum·mar·i·ly [sə-mer-ə-lē] adv
  • Summary Court-Martial
    : a court-martial consisting of one commissioned officer and having authority to impose no sentence in excess of one month's confinement or forfeiture of two-thirds of one month's pay compare general ...
  • Summary Distribution
    : an abridged form of administration allowing distribution of an estate after the filing of an inventory showing assets sufficient only to pay superior claims (as to family members claiming statutory ...
  • Summary Judgment
    see judgment
  • Summary Proceeding
    see proceeding
  • Summary Process
    : a procedure allowed to enforce a claim or right in a summary manner ;specif : a procedure to repossess real property esp. from a tenant upon nonpayment or other default : a summary eviction
  • Summation
    : closing argument
  • Summing-Up
    : closing argument
  • Summon
    : to command by service of a summons to appear in court
  • Summons
    pl: sum·mons·es [-mən-zəz] : a written notification that one is required to appear in court: as a : a document in a civil suit that is issued by an authorized judicial officer ...
  • Sunday Closing Law
    : a law that requires certain commercial establishments to close on Sundays or that restricts the sales that may be made on that day
  • Sunset
    : having or being a provision stipulating the termination or repeal of something (as a law, grant, or insurance coverage) on a specified date [ laws requiring periodic review of programs to justify ...
  • Sunshine
    : forbidding or restricting closed meetings of legislative or executive bodies and sometimes providing for public access to government records [ laws] see also Freedom of Information Act in the ...
  • Sup Ct
    supreme court
  • Superfund
    The program that funds and administers the cleanup of hazardous waste sites through a trust fund (financed by taxes on petroleum, chemicals and corporations), created to pay for cleanup pending ...
  • Superintendent
    : one who has the oversight and charge of a place, institution, department, organization, or operation ;specif : the executive head of a police department
  • Superior
    : of higher status, rank, or priority
  • Superior Court
    often cap S&C 1 : a court of general jurisdiction intermediate between the inferior courts and the higher appellate courts 2 : a court having original jurisdiction and conducting jury trials
  • Superior Knowledge
    see knowledge
  • Supermajority
    : a large majority [a provision requiring a vote — say, 80 % of the common shares instead of the usual bare majority rule "R. C. Clark"]
  • Supersede
    -sed·ed -sed·ing 1 : to subject to postponement or suspension ;esp : to suspend the operation of (a judgment or order) by means of a supersedeas 2 : to take the place of in authority : ...
  • Supersedeas
    [Medieval Latin, you should desist (word used in the writ)] 1 : a common-law writ commanding a stay of legal proceedings that is issued under various conditions and esp. to stay an officer from ...
  • Supersedeas Bond
    see bond
  • Superseding Cause
    see cause
  • Supervene
    -vened -ven·ing : to take place after or later in the course of something else as an additional and usually unforeseeable development with intervening or countering effect
  • Supervening Cause
    see cause
  • Supervised Release
    see revocation of probation.
  • Supervisor
    : one that directs or oversees a person, group, department, organization, or operation ;specif : the popularly elected chief administrative official of a township or other subdivision in some states ...
  • Supp.
    supplement
  • Supplemental
    : serving to complete or make an addition [ appropriations] ;specif : of, relating to, or being a supplemental pleading supplemental n
  • Supplemental Jurisdiction
    see jurisdiction
  • Supplemental Pleading
    see pleading
  • Supplementary
    : added or serving as a supplement
  • Supplementary Proceeding
    see proceeding
  • Support
    1 a : to promote the interests or cause of b : to uphold or defend as valid or right c : to argue or vote for 2 : to provide with substantiation or corroboration [ an alibi] 3 : to provide with ...
  • Suppress
    1 : to put down by authority or force 2 a : to keep secret b : to stop or prohibit the publication or revelation of 3 a : to exclude (illegally obtained evidence) from use at trial [ narcotics ...
  • Suppression Hearing
    see hearing
  • Supra
    [Latin] : earlier in this writing : above [in the discussion ] used in books, articles, and cases to refer the reader to previous pages, sections, or footnotes of the text or previous citations of ...
  • Supremacy Clause
    often cap S&C : a clause in Article VI of the U.S. Constitution that declares the constitution, laws, and treaties of the federal government to be the supreme law of the land to which judges in ...
  • Supreme Court
    1 : the highest court in a nation or state ;specif cap S&C : the highest court in the judicial branch of the U.S. government that has original jurisdiction over controversies involving ...
  • Supreme Court Of Appeals
    :the court of last resort in West Virginia
  • Supreme Court Of Judicature
    :the highest judicial body of England and Wales that includes the Court of Appeal and High Court of Justice
  • Supreme Judicial Court
    : the court of last resort in Maine and Massachusetts
  • Sur
    [Anglo-French, on, upon, from Latin super over] : on the basis of : with regard to [ petition for rehearing]
  • Surcharge
    1 : to impose a surcharge on [ a trustee for failing to exercise due care] 2 : to show an omission in (an account) for which credit ought to have been given
  • Surety
    pl: -ties [Anglo-French seurté, literally, guarantee, security, from Old French, from Latin securitat- securitas, from securus secure] 1 : a formal engagement (as a pledge) given for the ...
  • Surety Bond
    see bond
  • Surety Company
    see company
  • Suretyship
    : the contractual relationship in which a surety engages to answer for the debt or default of a principal to a third party
  • Surplus
    1 a : an amount that remains when a use or need is satisfied b : an excess of receipts over disbursements c : the value of assets after subtracting liabilities 2 : an excess of the net worth of a ...
  • Surplus Line
    : of, relating to, or being insurance provided by a company not authorized to do business in the state except through a specially licensed broker NOTE: Surplus line insurance can only be purchased if ...
  • Surplusage
    : excessive or nonessential matter ;esp : matter contained in a pleading that is unnecessary or irrelevant
  • Surprise
    1 : a condition or situation in which a party to a proceeding is unexpectedly placed without any fault or neglect of his or her own and that entitles the party to relief (as a new trial) 2 : an ...
  • Surrebuttal
    often attrib [sur- over + rebuttal] : the response to the rebuttal of the opposing party in a proceeding [testimony of defense witnesses "Arizona Rules of Court"]
  • Surrejoinder
    : an answer to a rejoinder
  • Surrender
    1 a : to yield to the control or possession of another [ the leased premises] [ collateral to a creditor] b : to give up completely or agree to forgo c : to cancel (one's insurance policy) ...
  • Surrender Value
    : cash surrender value
  • Surrogacy
    pl: -cies : the office of a surrogate
  • Surrogate
    [Latin surrogatus, past participle of surrogare subrogare to substitute, from sub- in place of, under + rogare to ask] 1 : one acting in the place of another ;esp : one standing in loco parentis to ...
  • Surrogate's Court
    : a probate court in New York
  • Surrogate's Office
    : an office in New Jersey which carries out duties in probate, the administration of estates, and the guardianship of minors
  • Surtax
    : an additional tax over and above a normal tax
  • Survey
    a property diagram that indicates legal boundaries, easements, encroachments, rights of way, improvement locations, etc. Surveys are conducted by licensed surveyors and are normally required by the ...
  • Survival Act
    : survival statute
  • Survival Action
    : an action for the recovery of damages for injury to a fatally injured person that is brought by his or her personal representative compare wrongful death action NOTE: A survival action depends on ...
  • Survival Statute
    : a statute that considers the cause of action for injury to a decedent as surviving his or her death and thereby permits survival actions called also survival act
  • Surviving Parent
    A child's living parent when the child's other parent is dead, and the living parent has not remarried.
  • Survivor
    : one (as a joint tenant or a child) who is recognized as outliving another and is commonly entitled to insurance benefits (as under social security) or property upon the death of the decedent see ...
  • Survivorship
    1 : the right of one or more joint tenants who have survived another to take the interest of the person who has died 2 : the state of being a survivor
  • Suspect
    [Latin suspectus, from past participle of suspicere to look up at, regard with awe, suspect, from sub- sus- up, secretly + specere to look at] : regarded or deserving to be regarded with suspicion or ...
  • Suspect Class
    : a class of individuals marked by immutable characteristics (as of race or national origin) and entitled to equal protection of the law by means of judicial scrutiny of a classification that ...
  • Suspect Classification
    : a statutory classification that is subject to strict scrutiny by the judiciary of its consistency with constitutional equal protection guarantees because it affects a suspect class ;also : suspect ...
  • Suspend
    1 : to debar temporarily from a privilege, office, or function 2 a : to stop temporarily [ trading] b : to make temporarily ineffective [ a license] c : stay [ a hearing] d : to defer until a ...
  • Suspended Sentence
    see sentence
  • Suspension
    : the act of suspending : the state or period of being suspended [the of an employee]
  • Suspensive
    in the civil law of Louisiana 1 : having the effect of suspending [granted a appeal] see also suspensive condition at condition 2 : characterized by suspension
  • Suspensive Condition
    see condition
  • Suspicion
    : the act or an instance of suspecting something : a mental state usually short of belief in which one entertains a notion that something is wrong or that a fact exists without proof or on slight ...
  • Sustain
    1 : to support as true, legal, or just 2 : to allow or uphold as valid [ an objection] compare overrule sus·tain·able adj
  • Swa
    See State Workforce Agency.
  • Swap
    1 : an exchange of securities 2 : a derivative contract in which two parties (as corporations) agree to exchange rates esp. relating to debt
  • Swear
    swore sworn swear·ing [Old English swerian] vt 1 : to utter or take solemnly [ an oath] 2 a : to assert as true or promise under oath [a sworn affidavit] b : to assert or promise emphatically ...
  • Swear In
    : to induct into office by administration of an oath
  • Swear Out
    : to procure (a warrant) by making a sworn statement ;also : to make (a sworn affidavit) to procure a warrant
  • Sweat Equity
    using labor to build or improve a property as part of the down payment
  • Symbolic Delivery
    : constructive delivery at delivery
  • Symbolic Speech
    : conduct that is intended to convey a particular message which is likely to be understood by those viewing it [it is well established that wearing certain clothing can be a form of protected ...
  • Sympathy Strike
    see strike
  • Synallagmatic
    [Greek synallagmatikos of a contract, from synallagmat- synallagama contract, covenant, from synallassein to enter into a contract, from syn- together with, at the same time as + allassein to change, ...
  • Synallagmatic Contract
    see contract
  • Syndic
    [French, government officer, from Late Latin syndicus, from Greek syndikos court assistant, advocate, from syn- together with + dikē right, judgment] in the civil law of Louisiana : a trustee of ...
  • Syndicalism
    [French syndicalisme, from (chambre) syndicale trade union, from chambre chamber + syndicale, feminine of syndical of or relating to a syndic or to a committee that assumes the powers of a syndic, ...
  • Syndicate
    [French syndicat the office or jurisdiction of a syndic] 1 : a group organized to carry out a particular transaction or enterprise 2 : an association of organized criminals
  • Syndicator
    : one that syndicates ;esp : one that organizes investment in limited partnerships by different parties