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FindLaw Legal Dictionary

The FindLaw Legal Dictionary -- free access to over 8260 definitions of legal terms. Search for a definition or browse our legal glossaries.

[C]

C
copyright
C & F
cost and freight
C Loan Or C Paper
FICO scores typically from 580 to 619. Factors include three to four 30 day late mortgage payments and four to six 30 day late installment loan payments or two to four 60 day late payments. Should be ...
C Reorganization
see reorganization
C.I.F.
cost, insurance, and freight
C.J.
1 chief justice 2 chief judge
C.M.R.
Court of Military Review
C.N.
Code Napoleon see also the Important Laws section
Cafeteria Plan
A type of employment benefits plan in which the employee selects benefits from a "menu," up to a specified dollar amount
Calendar
1 : a list of cases ready to be heard on a procedural action [the motion ] ;specif : a list of cases ready for trial called also list compare docket NOTE: Generally it is up to the party that wants ...
Calendar Call
: a session of the court which is held to inquire into the status of cases and in which the cases are called by name and are scheduled for trial if the parties indicate readiness called also call of ...
Call
1 : to announce or recite loudly [ed the civil trial list] 2 : to admit (a person) as a barrister [was ed to the bar] 3 : to demand payment of esp. by formal notice [ a loan] 4 : to demand ...
Call In
: call
Call Of The List
:calendar call
Call Option
see option
Callable
: capable of being called ;specif : subject to a demand for presentation for payment [a bond]
Callable Debt
a debt security whose issuer has the right to redeem the security at a specified price on or after a specified date, but prior to its stated final maturity.
Cancel
-celed or: -celled -cel·ing or: -cel·ling 1 : to destroy the force, validity, or effectiveness of: as a : to render (one's will or a provision in one's will) ineffective by purposely ...
Cancellation
also can·cel·a·tion n 1 : the act or an instance of cancelling 2 : a mark made to cancel something (as a check)
Cancellation Of Removal
A discretionary benefit adjusting an alien's status from that of deportable alien to one lawfully admitted for permanent residence. Application for cancellation of removal is made during the course of ...
Cancelled Without Prejudice
A stamp an embassy or consulate puts on a visa when there is a mistake in the visa or the visa is a duplicate visa (two of the same kind). It does not affect the validity of other visas in the ...
Canon
[Greek kanōn rod, measuring line, rule] 1 a : a regulation or doctrine decreed by a church council b : a provision of canon law 2 a : an accepted principle or rule [s of descent] b : a body ...
Canon Law
: a body of religious law governing the conduct of members of a particular faith ;esp : the codified church law of the Roman Catholic Church NOTE: Common law has been influenced by canon law in the ...
Canvass
also can·vas [kan-vəs] vb -vassed also: -vased -vass·ing also: -vas·ing vt 1 a : to examine in detail ;specif : to examine (votes) officially for authenticity b : to make the ...
Cap
a limit, such as one placed on an adjustable rate mortgage, on how much a monthly payment or interest rate can increase or decrease, either at each adjustment period or during the life of the ...
Capacity
pl: -ties 1 : a qualification, power, or ability (as to give consent or make a testament) created by operation of law 2 : an individual's ability or aptitude ;esp : mental ability as it relates to ...
Capias Ad Respondendum
or capias n [Medieval Latin, you may seize (the person) to (make him/her) answer the charge] : a writ or process commanding an officer to place a person under civil arrest in order to answer a ...
Capias Ad Satisfaciendum
[Medieval Latin, you may seize (the person) to (make him/her) satisfy (the claim)] : a writ or process commanding an officer to place a person (as a debtor) under civil arrest until a claim is ...
Capital
[Latin capitalis, from caput head, a person's life (as forfeit)] 1 a : punishable by death [ murder] b : involving execution [a case] 2 Medieval Latin capitalis chief, principal, from Latin caput ...
Capital Asset
see asset
Capital Contribution
: a contribution of funds or property to the capital of a business by a partner, owner, or shareholder NOTE: Under the Internal Revenue Code, a capital contribution is generally excluded from a ...
Capital Expenditure
: an amount paid out that creates a long-term benefit (as one lasting beyond the taxable year) ;esp : costs that are incurred in the acquisition or improvement of property (as capital assets) or ...
Capital Expense
see expense
Capital Gain
see gain
Capital Gains Tax
A tax on income derived from the sale of a capital asset, like real estate holdings or investments.
Capital Improvements
property improvements that either will enhance the property value or will increase the useful life of the property.
Capital Loss
see loss
Capital Or Cash Reserves
an individual's savings, investments, or assets.
Capital Punishment
: death penalty
Capital Stock
see stock
Capital Surplus
see surplus
Capitalization
1 : the act or process of capitalizing [ of earnings] 2 : a sum resulting from a process of capitalizing ;esp : paid-in capital at capital [inadequate ] 3 : total capital liabilities of a ...
Capitalize
-ized -iz·ing 1 a : to convert into capital [ the company's earnings] b : to treat as a capital expenditure rather than an ordinary and necessary expense [the cost of the merger must be ...
Capitation
[Late Latin capitatio, from Latin caput head] 1 : a direct uniform tax imposed on each head or person : poll tax [no , or other direct, tax shall be laid "U.S. Constitution art. I"] 2 : a uniform ...
Capricious
1 : governed or characterized by impulse or whim: as a : lacking a rational basis b : likely to change suddenly 2 : not supported by the weight of evidence or established rules of law often used ...
Caption
[Medieval Latin captio act of taking, from Latin capere to take] : the part of a legal document that states the court, the names of the parties, the docket number, the title of the document, and ...
Care
1 : watchful or protective attention, caution, concern, prudence, or regard usually towards an action or situation ;esp : due care [a person has a duty to use in dealing with others, and failure to ...
Career Offender
: a habitual or repeat criminal ;esp : an offender with two or more prior convictions for violent or drug-related crimes called also career criminal NOTE: Under federal sentencing guidelines career ...
Careless
: not showing due care : negligent [ driving] compare reckless
Carjacking
: theft by force or intimidation of an auto that has a driver or passenger present
Carnal Knowledge
: an act of esp. illegal sexual intercourse [whoever has carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will "District of Columbia Code Annotated"] ;also : the crime of committing such an act ...
Carrier
1 : an individual or entity engaged in transporting passengers or goods for hire by land, water, or air ;specif : common carrier 2 : an insurer that assumes the risks of a policy that it issues to ...
Carrier's Lien
see lien
Carryback
: the portion of an income tax deduction (as for a net operating loss) or credit which cannot be taken entirely in a given period and which may be deducted from taxable income of a prior period ...
Carryforward
: carryover
Carryover
: the portion of a deduction (as for a net operating loss) or credit which cannot be taken entirely in a given period and which may be deducted from taxable income of a later period compare carryback ...
Carryover Basis
see basis
Cas Fortuit
[Anglo-French] : fortuitous event
Case
[Latin casus accident, event, set of circumstances, literally, act of falling] 1 a : a civil or criminal suit or action [the judicial power shall extend to all s, in law and equity, arising under ...
Case At Bar
see case
Case File
a complete collection of every document in a case.
Case In Chief
see case
Case Law
: law established by judicial decisions in cases as distinguished from law created by legislation called also decisional law see also common law
Case Management
techniques used to process cases from one stage of the proceeding to another, such as setting deadlines for discovery or scheduling a series of pretrial conferences. Case management calls for ...
Case Number
The National Visa Center (NVC) gives each immigrant petition a case number. This number has three letters followed by ten digits (numbers). The three letters are an abbreviation for the overseas ...
Case Stated
: a statement agreed upon by the parties to a lawsuit that sets forth the facts of the case and the parties' request for a judgment by the court based on those facts
Caseload
: the number of cases handled (as by a court or a lawyer) often in a particular period
Cash
1 : ready money 2 : money or its equivalent (as a check) paid for goods or services at the time of purchase or delivery cash against documents : a sight draft in exchange for a bill of lading ...
Cash Accounting
Income is reported in the year it is received, and expenses are deducted in the year they are paid.
Cash Basis
see basis
Cash Basis Accounting
An accounting method that records sales and expenses when the transfer of cash occurs
Cash Collateral
: cash or cash equivalents (as negotiable instruments, securities, and documents of title) as specified in section 363 of chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code in which both the estate and another entity ...
Cash Flow Statement
A charting of sources and uses of cash of a business
Cash Merger
see merger
Cash Method
: cash basis at basis
Cash Out
1 : to prematurely redeem the securities of (a holder) often as part of a merger [the merging company will cash out the minority shareholders] 2 a : to accept payment for (a security) in full often ...
Cash Reserves
a cash amount sometimes required of the buyer to be held in reserve in addition to the down payment and closing costs; the amount is determined by the lender.
Cash Sale
see sale
Cash Surrender Value
: the amount of money an insurer will pay the insured upon surrender of a life insurance policy usually calculated as the reserve held by the insurer against the policy less a charge for surrender ...
Cash Value
: market value
Cash-Out Refinance
when a borrower refinances a mortgage at a higher principal amount to get additional money. Usually this occurs when the property has appreciated in value. For example, if a home has a current value ...
Cashier's Check
see check
Casual
1 a : not expected or foreseen b : not done purposefully : accidental 2 a : employed for irregular periods [a worker] b : engaging in an activity on an occasional basis [a seller]
Casualty
pl: -ties 1 : an unfortunate occurrence ;esp : a serious and often disastrous accident [conversion of property…arising from fire, storm, shipwreck, or other "Internal Revenue Code"] 2 : ...
Casualty Gain
see gain
Casualty Loss
see loss
Casualty Pot
: a step in calculating tax liability under Internal Revenue Code section 1231 in which qualified casualty gains and losses are added together to determine if the result is a net loss or net gain ...
Casualty Protection
property insurance that covers any damage to the home and personal property either inside or outside the home.
Casus Omissus
[New Latin] : a situation omitted from or not provided for by statute or regulation and therefore governed by the common law
Caucus
: a closed meeting of a group of persons belonging to the same political party or faction usually to select candidates or to decide on policy caucus vi
Causa
pl: cau·sae [kȯ-zī, -zē; ka-sī] [Latin] : cause used in various Latin phrases
Causa Mortis
[Latin mortis causa in contemplation of death] : made or done in contemplation of one's impending death [rejected his claim that the gift was causa mortis "W. M. McGovern, Jr. et al."] usually used ...
Causae
pl of causa
Causal
1 : of, relating to, or constituting a cause [ negligence] 2 : involving causation or a cause [no relationship between driving without insurance and the accident "National Law Journal"] [a link ...
Causality
pl: -ties : the relationship between cause and effect
Causation
1 a : the act or process of causing [proof of objective of injury by the perpetrator "Alan Freeman"] b : the act or agency that produces an effect [evidence was presented on doctor's ...
Causative
1 : effective or operating as a cause [the negligent act] 2 : causal [the link between stress and coronary artery disease "National Law Journal"]
Cause
1 : something that brings about an effect or result [the negligent act which was the of the plaintiff's injury] NOTE: The cause of an injury must be proven in both tort and criminal cases. actual ...
Cause In Fact
see cause
Cause Of Action
1 : the grounds (as violation of a right) that entitle a plaintiff to bring a suit [an amended pleading reiterating a cause of action for lost profits "J. H. Friedenthal et al."] ;also : the part of ...
Caveat
[Latin, may he/she beware] 1 a : a warning enjoining one from certain acts or practices b : an explanation to prevent a misinterpretation 2 : a notice to a court or judicial officer to suspend a ...
Caveat Emptor
[New Latin, may the buyer beware] : a principle in commercial transactions: without a warranty the buyer takes the risk as to the condition of the property or goods compare products liability at ...
Caveatee
: one against whose interest a caveat is entered or filed
Caveator
: one who enters or files a caveat
Cd
certificate of deposit
Cede
ced·ed ced·ing 1 : to yield or grant usually by treaty 2 : assign transfer 3 : to transfer (all or part of one's liability as an insurer under an insurance policy) by reinsurance to ...
Censor
: to examine (as a publication or film) in order to suppress or delete any contents considered objectionable
Censorship
: the institution, system, or practice of censoring compare freedom of speech, prior restraint
Censure
: an expression of official disapproval [a House resolution approving a of the representative] censure vt
Census
: a usually complete count of a population (as of a state) ;esp : a periodic governmental count of a population that usually includes social and economic information (as occupations, ages, and ...
Central Bank
see bank
Ceo
[chief executive officer] : the executive with the chief decision-making authority in an organization or business
Cercla
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act.
Cert
certiorari
Certificate
1 a : a document containing a certified statement esp. as to the truth of something [a birth ] b : a document certifying that a person has fulfilled the requirements of and may practice in a ...
Certificate Of Assumed Name, Trade Name, Or Fictitious Name
A certificate granted by a state authority (usually the secretary of state) that allows you to transact business under a name other than your own
Certificate Of Authority
A certificate granted by a state authority (usually the secretary of state) that allows a foreign corporation to conduct business
Certificate Of Citizenship
A document issued by the Department of Homeland Security as proof that the person is a U.S. citizen by birth (when born abroad) or derivation (not from naturalization). The Child Citizenship Act of ...
Certificate Of Convenience And Necessity
:a certificate issued by an agency granting a company authority to operate a public service esp. as a utility or transportation company
Certificate Of Deposit
:a money-market bond of a preset face value (as $10,000) paying fixed interest and redeemable without penalty only on maturity (as after two years)
Certificate Of Deposit (Cd)
A bank document that evidences the existence of a time deposit that normally pays interest.
Certificate Of Incorporation
1 : a certificate issued by a state's secretary of state that shows acceptance of a corporation's articles of incorporation 2 : articles of incorporation
Certificate Of Naturalization
A document issued by the Department of Homeland Security as proof that the person has become a U.S. citizen (naturalized) after immigration to the United States .
Certificate Of Occupancy
:a certificate issued by a local authority indicating that a building meets building-code requirements
Certificate Of Registration
Official document from the USPTO evidencing that a trademark has been registered.
Certificate Of Title
1 : a certificate of ownership stating that the title to the specified property is free and clear except for any encumbrance (as a mortgage) listed on it: as a : a certificate issued by a motor ...
Certificated Security
see security
Certification
1 a : the act of certifying b : the state of being certified see also certiorari NOTE: Certification of an interlocutory decision by a trial court allows an appellate court to review the decision ...
Certification Mark
Any word, name, symbol, device, or any combination, used, or intended to be used, in commerce by someone other than its owner, to certify regional or other origin, material, mode of manufacture, ...
Certified Check
see check
Certified Question
see question
Certify
-fied -fy·ing [Medieval Latin certificare, from Late Latin, to assure, convince, from Latin certus certain + -ficare to make] 1 : to state authoritatively: as a : to give assurance of the ...
Certiorari
[Medieval Latin certiorari (volumus) (we wish) to be informed (words used in the Latin texts of such writs)] : an extraordinary writ issued by a superior court (as the Supreme Court) to call up the ...
Cession
1 : an act of ceding : a yielding (as of property) to another: as a in the civil law of Louisiana : assignment or transfer of property rights by a debtor to a creditor b : transfer of liability by ...
Cestui
[Anglo-French, originally oblique form of cest this person, this] : beneficiary
Cestui Que Trust
pl: cestuis que trust or: cestuis que trus·tent [-trəs-tənt] [Anglo-French, probably alteration of cestui que use] : the beneficiary of a trust compare trustee
Cestui Que Use
[Anglo-French, the person for whose use (a fief is granted)] : the beneficiary of a use
Cf
[Latin confer] compare
Cfr
(Code of Federal Regulations) A codification of the rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government. The CFR is divided into 50 titles that ...
Chain Conspiracy
see conspiracy
Chain Gang
: a group of convicts chained together esp. to work outside a prison
Chain Of Causation
:the causal connection between an original cause and its subsequent effects esp. as a basis for criminal or civil liability [intervening acts of third parties will not break the chain of causation ...
Chain Of Title
:the succession of conveyances of the title to a particular item of real property (as a house) NOTE: The chain of title is usually stated or shown in an abstract of title.
Challenge
chal·lenged chal·leng·ing 1 : to dispute esp. as being invalid or unjust [counsel challenged this interpretation] 2 : to question formally (as by a suit or motion) the legality or ...
Challenge For Cause
see challenge
Challenge To The Array
see challenge
Chamber
1 : a judge's office ;specif : the private office where a judge carries on business other than court sessions (as conferences or signing papers) usually used in pl. [four other judges met in my ...
Chambers
the offices of a judge.
Champertous
: of, relating to, or being a champerty [a agreement]
Champerty
pl: -ties [Anglo-French champartie bargaining for a share of disputed property, from champart share of crops paid as rent, share of property in dispute, from champ field + part portion] : an ...
Chancellor
[Old French chancelier royal secretary, from Late Latin cancellarius doorkeeper, clerk, from Latin cancellus latticework barrier] 1 : the head of a chancery: as a : the Lord Chancellor of Great ...
Chancery
[Middle English chauncery, alteration of chancellerie chancellor's office] 1 cap : the court having equity jurisdiction in England and Wales and presided over by the Lord Chancellor of Great Britain ...
Change Of Venue
:a procedure available under title 28 section 1404 of the U.S. Code for the transfer of a case by a court in which the case is brought to another court where the case could have been properly brought ...
Change Status
Changing from one nonimmigrant visa status to another nonimmigrant visa status while a person is in the U.S. is permitted for some types of visas, if approved by USCIS. Requests for change of status ...
Chapter 11
: chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code see also Bankruptcy Code in the Important Laws section
Chapter 11 (Business Reorganization)
A petition designed to reorganize business debt. The business normally is permitted to continue its operations under court supervision until some plan of reorganization is approved by the creditors.
Chapter 12
: chapter 12 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code see also Bankruptcy Code in the Important Laws section
Chapter 13
: chapter 13 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code see also Bankruptcy Code in the Important Laws section
Chapter 13 (Wage Earner's Plan)
A petition designed for any insolvent debtor who is a wage earner to provide the debtor with additional time to pay off creditors.
Chapter 13 Bankruptcy
this type of bankruptcy sets a payment plan between the borrower and the creditor monitored by the court. The homeowner can keep the property, but must make payments according to the court's terms ...
Chapter 7
: chapter 7 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code see also Bankruptcy Code in the Important Laws section
Chapter 7 (Individual Bankruptcy)
A petition designed to liquidate the debtor's property, pay off his or her creditors, and discharge the debtor from his or her other debts.
Chapter 7 Bankruptcy
a bankruptcy that requires assets be liquidated in exchange for the cancellation of debt.
Chapter 9
: chapter 9 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code see also Bankruptcy Code in the Important Laws section
Character Evidence
see evidence
Character Witness
see witness
Charge
1 a : something required : obligation b : personal management or supervision [put the child in his ] c : a person or thing placed under the care of another 2 : an authoritative instruction or ...
Charge-Off
the portion of principal and interest due on a loan that is written off when deemed to be uncollectible.
Charging Lien
see lien
Charitable
: of or relating to charity [ contributions]
Charitable Contribution
Money or property donated to a qualified charity.
Charitable Deduction
see deduction
Charitable Immunity
see immunity
Charitable Remainder
see remainder
Charitable Trust
see trust
Charity
pl: -ties : a gift for humanitarian, philanthropic, or other purposes beneficial to the public (as maintaining a public building) ;also : an institution (as a hospital or school) or organization ...
Charter
[Old French chartre letter, formal document, from Late Latin chartula, from Latin, diminutive of charta sheet of papyrus] 1 a : a grant or guarantee of rights, powers, or privileges from an authority ...
Charter Party
: charter
Chattel
[Old French chatel goods, property, from Medieval Latin capitale, from neuter of capitalis chief, principal see capital ] : an item of tangible or intangible personal property ;esp : chattel ...
Chattel Mortgage
see mortgage
Chattel Paper
see paper
Chattel Personal
see chattel
Chattel Real
see chattel
Check
1 : something that limits or restrains see also checks and balances 2 : a written order signed by its maker directing a bank to pay a specified sum to a named person or to that person's order on ...
Check Off
: to deduct (union dues) from a worker's paycheck
Check-Kiting
: the practice of drawing on uncollected funds during the time needed to clear a check deposited in a bank esp. if the check is worthless called also kiting NOTE: Check-kiting typically works this ...
Checkoff
1 : the deduction of union dues from a worker's paycheck by the employer 2 : designation on an income tax return of a small amount of money to be applied to a special fund (as for campaign ...
Checkpoint
: a point at which an inspection or investigation is performed [a to uncover drunk drivers]
Checks And Balances
: the powers (as judicial review, the presidential veto, and the congressional override) conferred on each of the three branches of government by which each restrains the others from exerting too ...
Chief Judge
: the principal, presiding, or most senior judge of esp. a lower level court or of a circuit
Chief Justice
: a chief judge of a usually higher level court ;specif often cap : the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court chief jus·tice·ship n
Child
pl: chil·dren 1 : a son or daughter of any age and usually including one formally adopted compare issue NOTE: The word child as used in a statute or will is often held to include a stepchild, an ...
Child Abuse
: abuse
Child And Dependent Care Credit
A tax credit in the amount of a percentage of the amount expended on child or dependent care by an employed individual.
Child Labor Law
: a law regulating or prohibiting the employment of a person who is below a specified age
Child Support
: payment made for the support of the children of divorced or separated parents while the children are minors or until they reach an age set by the separation agreement or in a court order compare ...
Child Support Guidelines
Guidelines established by statute or rule in each jurisdiction that set forth the manner in which child support must be calculated, generally based on the income of the parents and the needs of the ...
Child Tax Credit
A tax credit available to people with children under the age of seventeen.
Chill
: to discourage esp. through fear of penalty : have a chilling effect on [statutes which may the exercise of…free expression "M. H. Redish"]
Chilling Effect
: a usually undesirable discouraging effect or influence [the chilling effect it will have on the assertion of legitimate claims "S. V. Bomse"] used esp. of First Amendment violations
Choate
[back-formation from inchoate] : being complete and superior to subsequent liens see also choate lien at lien compare inchoate cho·ate·ness n
Choate Lien
see lien
Choice Of Law
:an issue in conflicts of law as to what law (as among laws of different states or multiple federal laws) should be applied in a case compare comity, federalism, full faith and credit
Chop-Shop
: a place where stolen automobiles are stripped of salable parts
Chose
[Anglo-French, literally, thing, from Old French, from Latin causa legal case, reason, cause] : a piece of personal property chose in action : a right to something (as payment of a debt or damages ...
Chose In Action
see chose
Churn
: to make (the account of a client) excessively active by frequent purchases and sales primarily in order to generate commissions NOTE: Churning is a violation of federal securities laws.
Ci
certificate of insurance; cost and insurance
Cia
Central Intelligence Agency see also the Important Agencies section
Cid
civil investigative demand
Circuit
1 a : a route formerly taken by traveling judges b : a district established within a state or the federal judicial system see also the Judicial System in the back matter 2 cap : the court of ...
Circuit Court
: a court that sits in more than one place in a judicial district: as a : a state court usually with original jurisdiction and sometimes with appellate jurisdiction b : any of the federal courts of ...
Circuit Judge
: a judge who holds office in a circuit court
Circuit Justice
: a justice of the Supreme Court of the United States who is also assigned to sit as a judge of a circuit court
Circumstance
1 a : a condition, fact, or event accompanying, conditioning, or determining another [the s constituting fraud or mistake shall be stated "Federal Rules of Civil Procedure Rule 9(b)"] b : a piece of ...
Circumstantial
: belonging to, consisting in, or dependent on circumstances cir·cum·stan·tial·ly adv
Citation
1 : a writ giving notice to a person to appear in court: as a : a process served upon an interested party in a probate proceeding b : a notice to a person that he or she is charged with a petty ...
Citator
: a published list of cases, statutes, and other sources of law showing their subsequent history (as of being cited in other cases) and status (as in having been overruled by another case) see also ...
Cite
cit·ed cit·ing [Latin citare to rouse, call on, summon] 1 : to demand the appearance of in court : serve with a citation [had been cited for contempt] [you are hereby cited to show cause ...
Citizen
[Anglo-French citezein, alteration of Old French citeien, from cité city] 1 : a native or naturalized individual who owes allegiance to a government (as of a state or nation) and is entitled to ...
Citizen Informant
: an informant who is motivated to assist law enforcement officers by good citizenship as distinguished from one seeking some gain (as payment or concessions from police) called also citizen informer ...
Citizen Suit
: a suit brought by citizens under a provision of an environmental law (as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) that gives citizens a private right of action against violators of the law and ...
Citizen's Arrest
see arrest
Citizenship
1 : the status of being a citizen 2 : the quality of an individual's behavior as a citizen 3 : domicile used esp. in federal diversity cases see also diversity jurisdiction at jurisdiction
City Attorney
: an attorney holding a public office whose function is to advise and represent the city in legal matters NOTE: The office of the city attorney has many different titles. In some places the city ...
City Clerk
: a public officer charged with recording the official proceedings and vital statistics of a city
City Council
: the legislative body of a city
City Court
: a court having jurisdiction over local civil matters and often petty criminal matters (as violations of city ordinances)
City Solicitor
: city attorney
Civic
: of or relating to a citizen, a city, citizenship, or civil affairs
Civil
[Latin civilis, from civis citizen] 1 : concerning, befitting, or applying to individual citizens or to citizens as a whole [a duty] see also civil right 2 : marked by public order : peaceable in ...
Civil Arrest
see arrest
Civil Assault
see assault
Civil Case
a lawsuit brought by a party (the plaintiff) against another party (the defendant) claiming that the defendant failed to carry out a legal duty owed to the plaintiff and that the defendant's breach of ...
Civil Commitment
: court-ordered institutionalization of a person suffering from mental illness, alcoholism, or drug addiction usually upon a finding that the person is dangerous to himself or herself or to others
Civil Conspiracy
see conspiracy
Civil Contempt
see contempt
Civil Court
: a court having trial jurisdiction over usually minor civil matters
Civil Damage Act
: dram shop act
Civil Death
: the status of a living person equivalent in its legal consequences to natural death ;specif : deprivation of certain civil rights upon conviction for a serious crime
Civil Disobedience
: refusal to obey governmental demands or commands esp. as a nonviolent and usually collective means of forcing concessions from the government
Civil Fruit
see fruit
Civil Law
often cap C&L 1 : Roman law esp. as set forth in the Code of Justinian 2 : the body of law developed from Roman law and used in Louisiana, in continental Europe, and in many other countries ...
Civil Liability
see liability
Civil Liability Act
: dram shop act
Civil Liberty
: freedom from arbitrary interference in one's pursuits (as in expressing thoughts, practicing a religion, or pursuing a living) by individuals or esp. by the government and esp. as constitutionally ...
Civil Possession
see possession
Civil Procedure
: the steps taken and methods used in bringing and conducting a civil action ;also : a course of study in the rules of procedure in civil actions
Civil Right
: civil liberty ;esp : any of the civil liberties guaranteed by the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution and by the Civil Rights Acts usually used in pl. see also Civil Rights Act of ...
Civil Rights
Civil rights are the rights of individuals to be free from unfair or unequal treatment (discrimination) in a number of settings, when that negative treatment is based on the individual's race, gender, ...
Civil Rights Act
Federal statutes enacted after the Civil War, intended to implement and give further force to basic personal rights guaranteed by the Constitution. Such Acts prohibit discrimination based on race, ...
Civil Rights Act Of 1964
A federal law that prohibits discrimination in a number of settings: Title I prohibits discrimination in voting; Title II: public accommodations; Title III: Public Facilities; Title IV: Public ...
Civil Rights Movement
Historically, the term "Civil Rights Movement" has referred to efforts toward achieving true equality for African-Americans in all facets of society, but today the term "civil rights movement " is ...
Civil Surgeon
A medically trained, licensed and experienced doctor practicing in the U.S. who is certified by USCIS (U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Service). These medical professionals receive U.S. immigration
Civilian
: a specialist in Roman or modern civil law
Cl. Ct.
Claims Court
Claim
[Old French, from clamer to call, claim, from Latin clamare to shout, proclaim] 1 a : a demand for something (as money) due or believed to be due ;specif : a demand for a benefit (as under the ...
Claim And Delivery
: a statutory action to obtain temporary possession of property held by another until title to the property is determined by final judgment of the court
Claim Preclusion
: res judicata
Claimant
: one that asserts a claim esp. formally
Claims Made Policy
: an insurance policy providing coverage only for claims that are filed during the policy period called also discovery policy compare occurrence policy
Class
: a group of persons or things having characteristics in common: as a : a group of persons who have some common relationship to a person making a will and are designated to receive a gift under the ...
Class Action
: an action in which a representative plaintiff sues or a representative defendant is sued on behalf of a class of plaintiffs or defendants who have the same interests in the litigation as their ...
Class Gift
see gift
Class Suit
: class action
Classification
: the act or method of distributing into a class or category according to characteristics ;also : a class or category determined by characteristics see also suspect classification
Clause
: a distinct section of a writing ;specif : a distinct article, stipulation, or proviso in a formal document [a no-strike in the collective bargaining agreement] claus·al [klȯ-zəl] ...
Clayton Act
An amendment to the Sherman Act, the Clayton Act prohibits price discrimination, exclusive dealing contracts and mergers where the effect may lessen competition or tend to create a monopoly in ...
Cle
continuing legal education
Clean
: free of amendments or annotations
Clean Bill
see bill
Clean Bill Of Lading
see bill of lading
Clean Hands
: innocence of wrongdoing or deceit [plaintiff must come into court with clean hands] see also clean hands doctrine
Clean Hands Doctrine
: a doctrine that originated in equity and that bars a plaintiff from seeking judicial relief regarding a matter in which he or she is not free of guilt and does not have clean hands
Clean-Up Doctrine
: a doctrine of jurisdiction that allows a court of chancery which has acquired jurisdiction in a case to decide both equitable and legal questions provided that the legal questions are incidental to ...
Clear
1 : unencumbered by outstanding claims or interests [a search showed the title was ] 2 : free from doubt or ambiguity
Clear And Convincing
: conforming to or being the standard of proof required for some civil cases or motions in which the party bearing the burden of proof must show that the truth of the allegations is highly probable ...
Clear And Present Danger
: a risk or threat to safety or other public interests that is serious and imminent ;esp : one that justifies limitation of a right (as freedom of speech or press) by the legislative or executive ...
Clear Error
see error
Clear Title
see title
Clearinghouse
: an institution that arranges for payment of checks owed by one bank to another
Clearly Erroneous
: being or containing a finding of fact that is not supported by substantial or competent evidence or by reasonable inferences [findings of fact…shall not be set aside unless clearly erroneous ...
Clemency
pl: -cies 1 : willingness or ability to moderate the severity of a punishment (as a sentence) 2 : an act or instance of mercy, compassion, or forgiveness see also amnesty, commute, pardon, reprieve
Clerk
1 : an official responsible (as to a court) for correspondence, records, and accounts and having specified powers or authority (as to issue writs) [a city ] [ of court] 2 a : a person employed to ...
Clerk Of Court
an officer appointed by the court to work with the chief judge and other judges in overseeing the court's administration, especially to assist in managing the flow of cases through the court.
Clifford Trust
see trust
Close
closed clos·ing vt 1 : to bring to an end or to a state of completion [closed the case] [ an estate by liquidating its assets] [closing his account] 2 : to conclude discussion or negotiation ...
Close Corporation
see corporation
Closed
1 : confined to a few [ membership] 2 : excluding outsiders or witnesses : conducted in secrecy [ hearings]
Closed Shop
: a business in which the employer by agreement hires and retains only union members see also Labor Management Relations Act in the Important Laws section compare open shop, union shop NOTE: Closed ...
Closed-End
: having a fixed capitalization of shares that are traded on the market at prices determined by supply and demand [a investment company] compare open-end
Closely Held
: having most stock shares and corporate voting rights in the hands of a few shareholders
Closely Held Corporation
: close corporation at corporation
Closing
: the fulfillment or performance of a contract esp. for the sale of real estate ;also : a meeting at which the closing of a contract takes place [represented us at the ] NOTE: At the closing for the ...
Closing Argument
: the final address to the jury by the attorney for each side of a case in which the attorney usually summarizes the evidence and his or her client's position called also closing statement final ...
Closing Arguments
after all the evidence has been presented in a trial, lawyers' presentations summarizing the evidence and attempting to persuade the jury to draw conclusions favorable to their clients. Closing ...
Closing Costs
fees for final property transfer not included in the price of the property. Typical closing costs include charges for the mortgage loan such as origination fees, discount points, appraisal fee, ...
Closing Statement
A lawyers final statement to the judge or jury before deliberation begins in which the lawyer requests the judge or jury to consider the evidence and apply the law in his or her client's favor.
Cloture
[French clture, literally, closure] : the closing or limitation of debate in a legislative body esp. by calling for a vote cloture vt
Cloud On The Title
any condition which affects the clear title to real property.
Cloud On Title
:an interest (as a lien) in real property that if valid impairs the owner's title compare quiet
Clustering
Clustering is the use of multiple computers and storage devices to create what seems to be a single system.  Clustering is often used to increase a system's availability and for load balancing on ...
Cmo
: collateralized mortgage obligation
Co
care of
Co-
1 : with : together : joint : jointly [codefendant] 2 a : associated in an action with another : fellow [co-conspirator] b : having a usually lesser share in duty or responsibility : alternate ...
Co-Borrower
an additional person that is responsible for loan repayment and is listed on the title.
Co-Conspirator
: a fellow conspirator NOTE: Under Federal law, a statement made by a co-conspirator during and to further the conspiracy is admissible as evidence, but there must be other evidence establishing both ...
Co-Counsel
: an attorney who assists in or shares the responsibility of representing a client
Co-Felon
: one who commits a felony with another
Co-Maker
: one of two or more persons who sign an instrument to indicate a promise to pay a financial obligation NOTE: Any co-maker may be sued for the entire amount of the indebtedness, although a co-maker ...
Co-Owner
: one of two or more individuals or entities owning property together (as by joint tenancy, tenancy in common, or tenancy by the entirety)
Co-Signed Account
an account signed by someone in addition to the primary borrower, making both people responsible for the amount borrowed.
Co-Signer
a person that signs a credit application with another person, agreeing to be equally responsible for the repayment of the loan.
Coast Guard
The government agency responsible for enforcing federal laws on the high seas and navigable waters of the United States and its possessions.
Cobra
Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1986 see also Employee Retirement Income Security Act in the Important Laws section
Cod
cash on delivery, collect on delivery
Code
[Old French, from Medieval Latin codex, from Latin caudex codex tree trunk, set of wood writing tablets, book] 1 : a systematic compilation or revision of law or legal principles that is arranged ...
Code Pleading
see pleading
Codebtor
: one that shares liability for a debt : a fellow debtor
Codefendant
: a joint defendant
Codicil
[Latin codicillus, literally, writing tablet, diminutive of codic- codex book see code ] : a formally executed document made after a will that adds to, subtracts from, or changes the will see also ...
Codify
-fied -fy·ing : to reduce (laws) to a code cod·i·fi·ca·tion [kÄ -də-fə-kā-shən, kō-] n
Coerce
co·erced co·erc·ing : to subject (a person) to coercion compare importune, solicit
Coercion
: the use of express or implied threats of violence or reprisal (as discharge from employment) or other intimidating behavior that puts a person in immediate fear of the consequences in order to ...
Coercive
1 : serving or intended to coerce 2 : resulting from coercion [to protect women from intimacy "Kimberle Crenshaw"]
Cognizable
1 : capable of being known ;specif : capable of being recognized as a group because of a common characteristic (as race or gender) NOTE: Systematic exclusion of members of a cognizable group from a ...
Cognizance
[Old French connoissance right to acknowledge and adjudicate issues, literally, knowledge, acquaintance, from connoistre to be acquainted with] : jurisdiction
Cognovit Clause
[New Latin cognovit (actionem) heshe has acknowledged (the action)] : a clause in an agreement in which one party authorizes the entry of judgment against himself or herself in the event of his or ...
Cognovit Judgment
see judgment
Cognovit Note
see note
Cohabit
: to live together as a married couple or in the manner of a married couple co·hab·i·ta·tion [kō-ha-bə-tā-shən] n
Coheir
: a joint heir
Coinsurance
1 : joint assumption of risk (as by two underwriters) with another 2 : insurance (as fire insurance) in which the insured is obligated to maintain coverage on a risk at a stipulated percentage of ...
Coinsure
: to insure jointly co·in·sur·er n
Cola
1 cost-of-living adjustment 2 cost-of-living allowance
Cold Blood
: a state of mind marked by premeditation and deliberateness usually used in the phrase in cold blood [killed the victim in cold blood] compare cool state of blood, heat of passion ...
Cold Site
A cold site is a commercial disaster recovery service that provides only the office space required for an organization to continue its operations. Cold sites are less expensive than hot sites, but not ...
Colegatee
: a joint legatee
Collaborate
-rat·ed -rat·ing : to work jointly with others in some endeavor
Collate
-lat·ed -lat·ing [back-formation from collation, from Latin collatio (bonorum) bringing together (of property) for distribution to heirs] vt in the civil law of Louisiana : to return to an ...
Collateral
1 a : accompanying as a secondary fact, activity, or agency but subordinate to a main consideration b : not directly relevant or material [a evidentiary matter] [a issue] 2 : belonging to the same ...
Collateral Agreement
: an agreement related to and consistent with but independent of a larger written agreement
Collateral Attack
see attack
Collateral Estoppel
see estoppel
Collateral Fact
see fact
Collateral Fraud
see fraud
Collateral Mortgage
see mortgage
Collateral Negligence
see negligence
Collateral Note
see note
Collateral Order Doctrine
: an exception to the final judgment rule that allows review of orders conclusively determining a disputed question when the question is independent and separable from the rest of the case for ...
Collateral Power
see power
Collateral Proceeding
see proceeding
Collateral Promise
see promise
Collateral Source Rule
: a rule in torts: the amount of damages to be paid to a plaintiff by a defendant will not be reduced by payments received by the plaintiff from other sources (as medical insurance)
Collateralize
-ized -iz·ing 1 : to make (a loan) secure with collateral 2 : to use (as securities) for collateral
Collateralized Mortgage Obligation
: a bond collateralized by a pool of mortgage obligations or pass-through securities and paid according to the maturity and amortization schedule of its class and not directly from the underlying ...
Collation
[French, from Latin collatio bonorum (in Roman law) contribution made by emancipated heirs to an estate under an intestate succession, literally, bringing together of goods] in the civil law of ...
Collecting Bank
see bank
Collection Account
an unpaid debt referred to a collection agency to collect on the bad debt. This type of account is reported to the credit bureau and will show on the borrower's credit report.
Collection By Affidavit
:a procedure available for small estates in some states as an alternative to court administration in which a person named in a will may file an affidavit asserting his or her entitlement to payment ...
Collective
: involving all members of a group as distinct from individual members col·lec·tive·ly adv
Collective Bargaining
: negotiation between an employer and a labor union usually on wages, benefits, hours, and working conditions see also bargaining agent at agent, bargaining unit Labor Management Relations Act in the ...
Collective Bargaining Agreement
: an agreement between an employer and a labor union produced through collective bargaining : labor contract at contract
Collective Bargaining Unit
: bargaining unit
Collective Mark
: a trademark or a service mark of a group (as a cooperative association)
Collision Insurance
Coverage under a policy which pays for damage to, or loss of, your own automobile from upset or collision with another object or vehicle. Collision insurance does not cover bodily or personal injury, ...
Colloquium
[Latin, talk, discussion, from colloqui to converse] : the part of a complaint for defamation in which the plaintiff avers that the defamatory remarks related to him or her
Colloquy
: a discussion during a hearing between the judge and the defendant usually to ascertain the defendant's understanding of his or her rights and of the court proceedings
Collude
col·lud·ed col·lud·ing : to agree or cooperate secretly for a fraudulent or otherwise illegal purpose
Collusion
: the act or an instance of colluding col·lu·sive [-siv] adj
Collusive Joinder
see joinder
Collyer Doctrine
[from Collyer Insulated Wire, 192 N.L.R.B. 837 (1971), the ruling that resulted in it] : a doctrine in labor law under which the National Labor Relations Board will defer an issue brought before it ...
Color
: a legal claim to or appearance of a right or authority [threats that gave to an act of self-defense] usually used in the phrase under color of [a police officer held liable for violating the ...
Color Of Office
:the pretense or appearance of official authority in one who is without the authority claimed
Color Of Title
1 : an apparent but invalid title based upon a written instrument or record ;also : the instrument itself 2 : an apparent ownership claimed by adverse possession
Colorable
: having an appearance of truth, validity, or right [if a claim — or better — can be pleaded "D. F. Kolb and M. P. Carroll"] col·or·ably adv
Colorado River Abstention
see abstention
Combination
1 a : an alliance of individuals, states, or esp. corporations united to achieve a common (as economic) end see also combination in restraint of trade compare joint venture, merger b : conspiracy ...
Combination In Restraint Of Trade
:any monopoly or attempt at monopoly or any contract, combination, or conspiracy intended to restrain trade or commerce that violates the anti-trust laws see also Sherman Antitrust Act in the ...
Come Down
came down coming down : to be announced [the decision came down from the Supreme Court]
Come Forward
: to make a presentation of something to the court usually used with with [must come forward with materials to show that there is a genuine issue of fact "J. H. Friedenthal et al."] [coming forward ...
Come On
: to be brought forward (as a case in court) [the first prize case of the war…came on for trial "W. G. Young"]
Comity
1 : comity of nations 2 : the informal and voluntary recognition by courts of one jurisdiction of the laws and judicial decisions of another called also judicial comity compare choice of law, ...
Comity Of Nations
: the courtesy and friendship of nations marked esp. by mutual recognition of executive, legislative, and judicial acts 2 : the group of nations practicing international comity
Comment
1 often cap a : an essay analyzing, criticizing, or explaining a subject [a published in the Yale Law Review] b : an explanatory remark appended to a section of text (as of enacted code) 2 : an ...
Commerce
1 : the exchange or buying and selling of goods, commodities, property, or services esp. on a large scale and involving transportation from place to place : trade see also commerce clause Fair ...
Commerce Clause
often cap both Cs : a clause in Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution that empowers Congress to regulate interstate commerce and commerce with foreign countries and that forms the ...
Commerce Power
see power
Commercial
: of or relating to commerce [ regulations] com·mer·cial·ly adv
Commercial Bank
see bank
Commercial Disparagement
: disparagement
Commercial Frustration
: frustration
Commercial Impracticability
: impracticability
Commercial Law
: the legal rules and principles bearing on commercial transactions and business organizations see also Uniform Commercial Code in the Important Laws section
Commercial Letter Of Credit
see letter of credit
Commercial Paper
see paper
Commercial Partnership
see partnership
Commercial Speech
: speech (as advertising) that proposes a commercial transaction compare pure speech, symbolic speech NOTE: Commercial speech is entitled to a lesser level of protection under the First Amendment ...
Commercial Unit
: an item or group of items defined under section 2-105 of the Uniform Commercial Code as being viewed in commerce as a single whole that would be diminished in value if divided NOTE: Under U.C.C. ...
Commercially Reasonable
: fair, done in good faith, and corresponding to commonly accepted commercial practices [a secured party after default may sell…the collateral in its then condition or following any ...
Commingle
-gled -gl·ing vt : to combine (funds or properties) into a common fund or stock vi : to become commingled
Commingling
Act of fiduciary in mingling funds of his beneficiary, client, employer, or ward with his own funds. Such act is generally considered to be a breach of his fiduciary relationship. May be applied to ...
Commission
1 : a formal written authorization to perform various acts and duties [a notary's ] 2 a : authority to act for, in behalf of, or in place of another b : a task or matter entrusted to one as the ...
Commissioner
: a person with a commission: as a : a member of a commission b often cap : the officer in charge of a government agency [a police ]
Commit
com·mit·ted com·mit·ting vt 1 a : to put into another's charge or trust : entrust consign [committed her children to her sister's care] b : to place in a prison or mental ...
Commitment
1 : an act of committing: as a : placement in or assignment to a prison or mental hospital [petition for ] compare incompetent, interdiction NOTE: Commitment to a mental health facility is called ...
Committee
1 : a person to whom a charge (as an incompetent) is committed compare conservator, curator, guardian, tutor 2 a : a body of persons delegated or assigned to consider, investigate, act on, or report ...
Committee Of The Whole
:the whole membership of a legislative house (as the House of Representatives) sitting as a committee and operating under informal parliamentary rules called also Committee of the Whole House on the ...
Commodatum
[Latin, loan, from neuter of commodatus, past participle of commodare to lend, bestow] : a gratuitous loan of movable property to be used and returned by the borrower : loan for use at loan ...
Commodity
pl: -ties : a class of economic goods ;esp : an item of merchandise (as soybeans) whose price is the basis of futures trading
Common
1 a : of or relating to a community at large : public [ defense] b : known to the community [a thief] 2 : belonging to or shared by two or more persons or things or by all members of a group ...
Common Carrier
: a business or agency that is available to the public for transportation of persons, goods, or messages compare contract carrier
Common Easement
see easement
Common Law
: a body of law that is based on custom and general principles and embodied in case law and that serves as precedent or is applied to situations not covered by statute [the common law of torts]: as ...
Common Nuisance
see nuisance
Common Pleas
: court of common pleas
Common Property
see property
Common Stock
see stock
Common-Law Copyright
: a copyright in common law protecting unpublished works NOTE: Works created after January 1, 1978, are protected by statutory rather than common-law copyright while unpublished.
Common-Law Lien
see lien
Common-Law Marriage
: a marriage that is without a ceremony and is based on the parties' agreement to consider themselves married and usually also on their cohabitation for a period and their public recognition of the ...
Common-Law Trust
see trust
Commonwealth
1 : a nation, state, or other political unit: as a : one founded on law and united by compact or tacit agreement by the people for the common good b : one in which supreme authority is vested in ...
Commonwealth Court
: a court in Pennsylvania that hears cases involving administrative agencies or other governmental bodies
Communication
: the expression to another of information or thoughts through speech, writing, or gestures see also confidential communication, privileged communication
Communicative
1 : tending or serving to communicate [a gesture] 2 : of or relating to communication
Communicative Evidence
see evidence
Community
pl: -ties 1 : the people who live in a particular place or region and usually are linked by some common interests 2 a : the mass of community property owned by a husband and wife [a spouse may ...
Community Property
see property
Commutative Contract
see contract
Commute
com·mut·ed com·mut·ing 1 : to convert (as a payment) into another form 2 : to change (a penalty) to one less severe esp. out of clemency compare pardon ...
Companion Case
see case
Company
pl: -nies : an association of persons for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise compare corporation, partnership finance company : a company that makes usually small short-term loans to ...
Company Union
: an unaffiliated labor union of the employees of a single company NOTE: Historically, the company union was one formed or dominated by the company. Such unions have been long held to be illegal.
Comparable Worth
: the concept that women and men should receive equal pay for jobs calling for comparable skill and responsibility
Comparative
: characterized by systematic comparison [ contribution, which apportions according to…respective fault "W. L. Prosser and W. P. Keeton"] com·par·a·tive·ly adv
Comparative Fault
: a doctrine in torts in which the fault attributable to each party is compared and any award to the plaintiff is reduced in proportion to the plaintiff's share of the fault : comparative negligence ...
Comparative Law
: the study of the differences, similarities, and interrelationships of different systems of law
Comparative Market Analysis (Comps)
a property evaluation that determines property value by comparing similar properties sold within the last year.
Comparative Negligence
see negligence
Compel
com·pelled com·pel·ling : to cause to do or occur by overwhelming pressure and esp. by authority or law [cannot the defendant to testify] [the result…is compelled by, the ...
Compelling
: that compels : tending to demand action or to convince [a need for disclosure] [a argument]
Compensable
: entitling an individual to compensation [a job-related injury]
Compensate
-sat·ed -sat·ing : to make an appropriate and usually counterbalancing payment to [ the victims for their injuries] [adequately compensated for her work] ...
Compensated Bailment
: bailment for hire at bailment
Compensating Factors
factors that show the ability to repay a loan based on less traditional criteria, such as employment, rent, and utility payment history.
Compensation
1 : the act of compensating 2 in the civil law of Louisiana : the ending of mutual obligations between two people for money or quantities of fungible things usually by operation of law but sometimes ...
Compensatory Damages
: actual damages at damage
Competence
: the quality or state of being competent: as a : possession of sufficient knowledge or skill b : legal authority, ability, or admissibility [a court of general ] [the of witnesses] [challenge the ...
Competency
1 : the quality or state of being mentally competent compare capacity, incompetence, insanity 2 : the quality or state of being legally qualified or adequate [the , quantum and legal effect of ...
Competent
1 : having or showing requisite or adequate ability or qualities [a lawyer] [ representation by counsel] 2 a : free from addiction or mental defect that renders one incapable of taking care of ...
Competent Evidence
see evidence
Compilation
: a collection of preexisting materials and data so arranged to form a new original work under the law of copyright
Complain
: to make a complaint
Complainant
: the party (as a plaintiff or petitioner) who makes the complaint in a legal action or proceeding
Complaint
Definition. A legal complaint, also called a petition, is typically the first document filed in a lawsuit. It is the pleading that starts a lawsuit.
Complete Diversity
: diversity of citizenship in which the citizenship of all the plaintiffs to an action differs from that of all the defendants see also diversity of citizenship diversity jurisdiction at jurisdiction ...
Complete Interdiction
: interdiction
Completed Gift
see gift
Completion Bond
see bond
Complex Trust
see trust
Compliance
1 : an act or process of complying with a demand or recommendation 2 : observance of official requirements
Component Part
: something (as a building or part of a building) that cannot be removed without substantial damage to itself or to the immovable property to which it is attached
Compos Mentis
[Latin, literally, having possession of one's mind] : competent
Composition
: an agreement between an insolvent debtor and several creditors whereby partial payment of the debts discharges in full the original obligations compare accord, compromise
Compound
1 : to agree for a consideration not to prosecute (an offense) NOTE: Compounding a felony is a common-law crime. 2 : to pay (interest) on both the accrued interest and the principal
Compound Interest
see interest
Comprehensive
: covering completely or broadly [a insurance policy]
Comprehensive General Liability Insurance
: liability insurance for a business that usually covers losses from products liability, premises liability, and some liabilities that the insured assumes under a contract (as a lease)
Comprehensive Insurance
Insurance coverage that reimburses you for damage to your own car from causes other than a collision, upset, or general wear and tear. Comprehensive insurance may provide coverage for hail, flood, ...
Compromise
: an agreement resolving differences by mutual concessions esp. to prevent or end a lawsuit
Compromise Verdict
see verdict
Comptroller
: the head accounting officer of a company or government
Comptroller General
: the accounting officer of the U.S. who investigates financial claims against or on behalf of the government
Comptroller General Procurement Decisions
The Comptroller General's decisions issued regarding appropriations, bid protests, major rules and related issues. These decisions are prepared by the GAO's Office of General Counsel.
Compulsion
1 : an act of compelling (as by threat or intimidation) ;specif : coercion [a payment exacted by lawless "E. A. Farnsworth and W. F. Young"] 2 : the state of being compelled ;specif : duress ...
Compulsory
1 : required or compelled by law : mandatory obligatory [ arbitration] [ insurance] ;specif : required to be brought or asserted in a pleading because of having arisen from the transaction or ...
Compulsory Joinder
see joinder
Compulsory Process
: process served on witnesses to compel their testimony for the defense at trial NOTE: A criminal defendant has a constitutional right to compulsory process.
Conceal
1 : to prevent disclosure of or fail to disclose (as a provision in a contract) esp. in violation of a duty to disclose 2 a : to place out of sight NOTE: A weapon need only be placed out of ordinary ...
Concert Of Action
: a theory in torts that imposes liability on all defendants who have committed tortious acts that contributed to the plaintiff's injury even though only one actually caused the injury compare ...
Concerted
1 : mutually contrived or agreed upon [the pursuit of lawful…ends "L. H. Tribe"] 2 : acting together toward a common end [ wrongdoers]
Concerted Activity
pl: -ties : an employee action (as canvassing other employees) that concerns wages or working conditions of others in addition to the employee and that contemplates group activity NOTE: Concerted ...
Concession
1 : an act or instance of conceding or yielding 2 : something conceded: as a : acknowledgment admission b : something granted esp. as an inducement (as to enter into an agreement) c : a grant ...
Conciliation
: the settlement of a dispute by mutual and friendly agreement with a view to avoiding litigation con·cil·i·a·tor [kən-si-lē-ā-tər] n
Conclusion
1 : a judgment or opinion inferred from relevant facts [our upon the present evidence "Missouri v. Illinois, 200 U.S. 496 (1905)"] 2 a : a final summarizing (as of a closing argument) b : the last ...
Conclusion Of Fact
:a fact inferred to exist from other facts actually proved by evidence
Conclusion Of Law
:the court's statement of the law applicable to a case in view of facts found to be true : the judgment required by law when applied to the facts called also finding of law
Conclusionary
: conclusory
Conclusive
1 : of, relating to, or being a conclusion 2 : putting an end to debate or question esp. by reason of inability to be refuted con·clu·sive·ly adv con·clu·sive·ness ...
Conclusive Presumption
see presumption
Conclusory
: consisting of or relating to a conclusion or assertion for which no supporting evidence is offered [ allegations]
Concubinage
: the relationship between persons who are cohabiting without the benefit of marriage used esp. in the civil law of Louisiana compare common-law marriage NOTE: Under Louisiana law, concubinage does ...
Concur
con·curred con·cur·ring 1 : to happen at the same time 2 : to express agreement [he shall have power…to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present "U.S. ...
Concurrence
1 : the simultaneous occurrence of events or circumstances 2 : an agreement in judgment ;specif : a judge's or justice's separate opinion that differs in reasoning but agrees in the decision of the ...
Concurrent
1 : occurring, arising, or operating at the same time often in relationship, conjunction, association, or cooperation [the power of taxation in the general and state governments is acknowledged to be ...
Concurrent Cause
see cause
Concurrent Condition
see condition
Concurrent Jurisdiction
see jurisdiction
Concurrent Power
see power
Concurrent Resolution
: a resolution passed by both houses of a legislative body that lacks the force of law compare joint resolution
Concurrent Sentence
see sentence
Concurring Cause
: concurrent cause at cause
Concurring Opinion
see opinion
Condemn
1 : to impose a penalty on ;esp : to sentence to death 2 : to adjudge unfit for use or consumption 3 : to declare convertible to public use under the right of eminent domain : take ...
Condemnee
: the owner of property that is condemned
Condition
1 : an uncertain future act or event whose occurrence or nonoccurrence determines the rights or obligations of a party under a legal instrument and esp. a contract ;also : a clause in the instrument ...
Condition Implied In Law
see condition
Condition Precedent
see condition
Condition Subsequent
see condition
Conditional Delivery
see delivery
Conditional Fee
see fee
Conditional Obligation
see obligation
Conditional Privilege
: qualified privilege at privilege
Conditional Residence Visa
If you have been married for less than two years when your husband or wife (spouse) gets lawful permanent resident status (gets a green card), then your spouse gets residence on a conditional basis. ...
Conditional Resident
Any alien granted permanent resident status on a conditional basis (e.g., a spouse of a U.S. citizen; an immigrant investor), who is required to petition for the removal of the set conditions before ...
Conditional Sale
see sale
Conditional Use
see use
Conditional Will
see will
Conditionally Privileged Communication
: privileged communication
Condominium
pl: -ums [New Latin, joint dominion, from Latin com- with, together + dominium rule, ownership] 1 : ownership of real property that is characterized by separate ownership of portions of the property ...
Condonation
[Medieval Latin condonatio remission, pardon, from Latin condonare to give away, absolve] : voluntary overlooking or pardon of an offense ;specif : express or implied and usually conditional ...
Condone
con·doned con·don·ing [Latin condonare to give away, absolve] : to pardon or overlook voluntarily
Conduct
1 a : the act, manner, or process of carrying on or managing [his of the case was negligent] b : an act or omission to act [a crime is that which is defined as criminal "Louisiana Revised Statutes"] ...
Conference
1 : a meeting for consultation, deliberation, discussion, or interchange of opinions [a on environmental law] see also judicial conference, pretrial conference 2 : a meeting of members of the two ...
Conference Committee
: a joint committee that is appointed to hold a conference on differing versions of a bill
Confess
: to admit (as a charge or allegation) as true, proven, or valid [unless you answer, the petition shall be taken as confessed] vi : to make a confession con·fes·sor ...
Confession
1 : an act of confessing 2 : an acknowledgment of a fact or allegation as true or proven ;esp : a written or oral statement by an accused party acknowledging the party's guilt (as by admitting ...
Confession And Avoidance
: a common-law plea in which a party confesses an allegation but alleges additional facts to avoid the intended legal effect of the original allegation compare demurrer
Confession Of Judgment
:acknowledgment by a debtor of a claim and consent that a judgment may be entered usu. without notice or hearing for the amount of the claim when it is due and unpaid compare cognovit note at note
Confidential
1 : known or conveyed only to a limited number of people [a disclosure] 2 : marked by or indicative of intimacy, mutual trust, or willingness to confide esp. between parties one of whom is in a ...
Confidential Communication
: a communication between parties to a confidential relation (as husband and wife, attorney and client, or doctor and patient) such that the recipient of the communication has a privilege exempting ...
Confidential Relationship
: fiduciary relationship
Confidentiality
The relation between lawyer and client which guarantees any information shared by the client is treated as private and as such cannot be divulged to third parties without the client's consent.
Confine
con·fined con·fin·ing : to hold within a location ;specif : imprison
Confinement
1 : the act of confining 2 : the state of being confined
Confirm
1 a : to make valid by necessary formal approval [the debtor's chapter 13 plan ed by the court] b : to vote approval of [ a nomination] 2 : to give formal acknowledgment of receipt of 3 : to ...
Confirmation
1 : the act or process of confirming, assuring, or upholding [seeking of the agreement] ;specif : the ratification of an executive act by a legislative body [senate of the Supreme Court nominee] 2 ...
Confirmation Hearing
see hearing
Confiscate
-cat·ed -cat·ing : to seize without compensation as forfeited to the public treasury compare criminal forfeiture NOTE: Illegal items such as narcotics or firearms, or profits from the sale ...
Conflict Of Interest
: a conflict between the private interests and the official or professional responsibilities of a person in a position of trust 2 : a conflict between competing duties (as in an attorney's ...
Conflict Of Laws
:opposition or conflict between the applicable laws of different states or jurisdictions regarding the rights of the parties in a case ;also : a branch of law that deals with the resolution of such ...
Conform
: to be in accordance : correspond in character ;specif : to be in accordance with the provisions of a contract con·for·mance [kən-fȯr-məns] n ...
Conforming Loan
is a loan that does not exceed Fannie Mae's and Freddie Mac's loan limits. Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae loans are referred to as conforming loans.
Confront
: to face or bring face-to-face for the purpose of challenging esp. through cross-examination [the accused shall enjoy the right…to be ed with the witnesses against him "U.S. Constitution ...
Confrontation Clause
often cap both Cs : the clause in the Sixth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution guaranteeing to defendants in criminal prosecutions the right to be confronted with the witnesses against them esp. for ...
Confusion
1 in the civil law of Louisiana : a uniting of two interests or rights in property into one compare merger 2 in the civil law of Louisiana : the termination of an obligation by a person acquiring ...
Cong
1 congress 2 congressional
Conglomerate
: a widely diversified company ;esp : a corporation that acquires other companies whose activities are unrelated to the corporation's primary activity
Congress
[Latin congressus meeting, encounter, from congredi to approach, meet] 1 : a formal meeting of delegates 2 a : the supreme legislative body of a nation and esp. a republic b cap : the legislative ...
Congressional District
: a territorial division of a state from which a member of the U.S. House of Representatives is elected
Congressional Record
: the published record of the daily proceedings in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives
Congressman
pl: con·gress·men : a member of Congress ;esp : a member of the U.S. House of Representatives
Congresspeople
: members of Congress : congressmen and congresswomen
Congressperson
: a congressman or congresswoman
Congresswoman
pl: con·gress·wom·en : a female member of Congress ;esp : a female member of the U.S. House of Representatives
Conjoint
in the civil law of Louisiana : joint con·joint·ly adv
Conjoint Legacy
see legacy
Conjugal
: of or relating to marriage or to married persons and their relationships
Conjugal Rights
: the rights and privileges (as to love, affection, sexual relations, companionship, comfort, and services) implied by and involved in the marriage relationship
Connivance
: the act of conniving esp. with regard to a spouse's marital misconduct (as adultery) ;also : a defense to a charge of marital misconduct in a divorce proceeding compare condonation
Connive
con·nived con·niv·ing [Latin con(n)ivere to close one's eyes, knowingly overlook something] : to assent knowingly and wrongfully without opposition to another's wrongdoing ;specif : ...
Consanguine
: consanguineous
Consanguineous
: of the same blood or origin ;specif : descended from the same ancestor con·san·guin·e·ous·ly adv
Consanguinity
: the quality or state of being consanguineous
Conscience
: exempting persons whose religious beliefs forbid compliance [ laws, which allow physicians…to refuse to participate in abortions "W. J. Curran"]
Conscientious Objection
: objection on moral or religious grounds (as to military service or bearing arms) conscientious objector n
Conscionable
: guided by conscience : characterized by fairness and justice compare unconscionable con·scio·na·bil·i·ty [kÄ n-chə-nə-bi-lə-tē] n
Consecutive
: following one after the other in order con·sec·u·tive·ly adv
Consecutive Sentence
see sentence
Consensual
1 : existing or made by mutual consent without any further act (as a writing) 2 : involving or based on mutual consent [ sexual intercourse]
Consensus Ad Idem
[Latin, agreement with respect to the same thing] : meeting of the minds
Consent
1 a : compliance in or approval of what is done or proposed by another ;specif : the voluntary agreement or acquiescence by a person of age or with requisite mental capacity who is not under duress ...
Consent Decree
see decree
Consent Judgment
see judgment
Consent Order
see order
Consent Search
see search
Consequential
: of the nature of an indirect or secondary result
Conservator
1 : a person, official, or institution appointed by a court to take over and manage the estate of an incompetent compare committee, curator, guardian, receiver, tutor 2 : a public official charged ...
Consideration
: something (as an act or forbearance or the promise thereof) done or given by one party for the act or promise of another see also contract compare motive NOTE: Except in Louisiana, consideration is ...
Consign
: to entrust (one's goods) to the possession of a dealer to be sold for profit or returned if unsold compare bail, entrust con·sign·ment n con·sign·or ...
Consignee
: a person to whom goods are consigned
Consolidate
-dat·ed -dat·ing : to join together into one whole: as a : to combine (two or more lawsuits or matters that involve a common question of law or fact) into one compare class action NOTE: ...
Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (Cobra)
A federal law that requires employers to allow employees to continue their health insurance coverage after termination, in the same insurance group, at the group rate, and providing the same benefits
Consortium
pl: -sor·tia [-shə, -shē-ə] also: -sortiums [Latin, sharing, partnership, from consort- consors sharer, partner] 1 : an agreement, combination, or group (as of companies) formed ...
Conspiracy
pl: -cies [Latin conspiratio, from conspirare to conspire see conspire ] 1 : an agreement between two or more people to commit an act prohibited by law or to commit a lawful act by means prohibited ...
Conspirator
: one who conspires
Conspiratorial
: of, relating to, or suggestive of a conspiracy con·spir·a·tor·i·al·ly adv
Conspire
con·spired con·spir·ing [Latin conspirare to be in harmony, to join in an unlawful agreement, from com- together + spirare to breathe] : to join in a conspiracy compare solicit
Constable
[Old French conestable military commander, chief of the royal household, from Late Latin comes stabuli, literally, officer of the stable] : a public officer usually of a town or township responsible ...
Constituency
pl: -cies 1 : a body of citizens entitled to elect a representative (as to a legislative or executive office) 2 : the residents in an electoral district 3 : an electoral district
Constituent
1 : one who authorizes another to act as agent : principal 2 : a member of a constituency
Constitute
1 : to appoint to an office or function [those who are constituted heirs or named legatees "Louisiana Civil Code"] [legal authority s all magistrates] 2 : establish found [to tribunals inferior to ...
Constitution
[Latin constitutio system, fundamental principles (of an institution), from constituere to set up, establish] 1 : the basic principles and laws of a nation, state, or social group that determine the ...
Constitutional
1 : consistent with or authorized by the constitution of a state or society [ rights] 2 : regulated by, dependent on, or ruling according to a constitution [a monarchy] 3 : of, relating to, or ...
Constitutional Court
: a court established by a constitution ;esp : the federal courts established by Article III of the U.S. Constitution compare legislative court
Constitutional Law
: a body of statutory and case law that is based on, concerns, or interprets a constitution
Constitutionality
: the quality or state of being constitutional ;esp : conformity with the provisions of a constitution [questioned the of the income tax]
Construction
: the act or result of construing, interpreting, or explaining meaning or effect (as of a statute or contract) [the placed upon an agreement "J. D. Calamari and J. M. Perillo"]
Construction Loan
a short-term, to finance the cost of building a new home. The lender pays the builder based on milestones accomplished during the building process. For example, once a sub-contractor pours the ...
Construction Mortgage
see mortgage
Constructive
: created by a legal fiction: as a : inferred by a judicial construction or interpretation b : not actual but implied by operation of the law [made a entry when he refused to take the opportunity ...
Constructive Bailment
see bailment
Constructive Condition
see condition
Constructive Contempt
see contempt
Constructive Contract
see contract
Constructive Custody
see custody
Constructive Delivery
see delivery
Constructive Desertion
: the act of one spouse forcing the other (as by violence) to abandon the home or relationship NOTE: Constructive desertion, like desertion, is a ground for divorce.
Constructive Discharge
see discharge
Constructive Dividend
see dividend
Constructive Eviction
see eviction
Constructive Force
see force
Constructive Fraud
see fraud
Constructive Intent
see intent
Constructive Knowledge
see knowledge
Constructive Notice
see notice
Constructive Possession
see possession
Constructive Receipt
: the receipt of taxable income (as interest on a savings account) that is implied by the income's ready availability to the taxpayer although it has not actually been collected
Constructive Service
: substituted service
Constructive Trust
see trust
Consul
: an official appointed by a government to reside in a foreign country in order to represent the commercial interests of citizens of the appointing country con·su·lar [-sə-lər] ...
Consulate
1 : the office, term of office, or jurisdiction of a consul 2 : the residence or official premises of a consul
Consumer
: one that utilizes economic goods ;specif : an individual who purchases goods for personal use as distinguished from commercial use
Consumer Credit
: credit extended by merchants or banks to finance the purchase of consumer goods (as home appliances) or services (as travel or hotel accommodations) compare consumer debt at debt
Consumer Debt
see debt
Consumer Debtor
A debtor whose debts are primarily consumer debts.
Consumer Debts
Debts incurred for personal (as opposed to business) needs.
Consumer Goods
see good
Consumer Lease
see lease
Consumer Price Index
: an index measuring the change in the cost of typical wage-earner purchases of goods and services in some base period called also cost-of-living index
Consumer Product Safety Commission
A federal agency that has primary responsibility for establishing mandatory product safety standards to reduce the unreasonable risk of injury to consumers from consumer products.
Consumer Protection
Laws designed to protect consumers against unfair trade and credit practices involving faulty or dangerous goods.
Contemner
also con·tem·nor [kən-tem-nər] n : one who commits contempt
Contempt
1 : willful disobedience or open disrespect of the orders, authority, or dignity of a court or judge acting in a judicial capacity by disruptive language or conduct or by failure to obey the court's ...
Contempt Of Court
:contempt
Contest
: to dispute or challenge through legal procedures [ a will]
Contestant
: one that initiates or participates in a contest
Contested Matter
Those matters, other than objections to claims, that are disputed but are not within the definition of an "adversary proceeding".
Contingency
pl: -cies 1 : the quality or state of being contingent 2 : a contingent event or condition: as a : an event that may but is not certain to occur [a that made performance under the contract ...
Contingency Fee
see fee
Contingent
1 : likely but not certain to happen compare executory 2 : intended for use in circumstances not completely foreseen [a fund] 3 : dependent on or conditioned by something else [a claim] [a legacy ...
Contingent Annuity
see annuity
Contingent Beneficiary
see beneficiary
Contingent Claim
A claim that may be owed by the debtor under certain circumstances, e.g., where the debtor is a cosigner on another person's loan and that person fails to pay.
Contingent Estate
see estate
Contingent Fee
: contingency fee at FEE
Contingent Interest
see interest
Contingent Liability
see liability
Contingent Remainder
see remainder
Continuance
: the postponement of the court proceedings in a case to a future day
Continue
-tin·ued -tinu·ing : to postpone (a legal proceeding) to a future day
Continuing
1 : marked by uninterrupted extension in time or sequence [a criminal enterprise] 2 : needing no renewal [ shareholders]
Continuing Trespass
see trespass
Contra
[Latin] : in opposition or contrast to
Contra Bonos Mores
[Late Latin] : harmful to the moral welfare of society [an act contra bonos mores]
Contraband
[Italian contrabbando act of smuggling, from contra- against + bando edict, law] : property that is unlawfully produced, possessed, or transported contraband per se : property that is in and of ...
Contraband Per Se
see contraband
Contract
[Latin contractus from contrahere to draw together, enter into (a relationship or agreement), from com- with, together + trahere to draw] 1 : an agreement between two or more parties that creates in ...
Contract Bond
see bond
Contract Carrier
: a transport line that carries persons or property under contract to one or a limited number of shippers compare common carrier
Contract Clause
often cap both Cs : the clause in Article I, Section 10 of the U.S. Constitution that prohibits states from passing any laws that render contracts invalid or impair the obligations under them
Contract Of Adhesion
see contract
Contract Under Seal
see contract
Contractor
: one that contracts: as a : one that contracts to perform work or provide supplies b : one that contracts to erect buildings
Contractual
: of, relating to, or constituting a contract [a agreement] con·trac·tu·al·ly adv
Contribute
-ut·ed -ut·ing vt : to make a contribution of vi : to make a contribution
Contribution
1 : payment of a share of an amount for which one is liable: as a : shared payment of a judgment by joint tortfeasors esp. according to proportional fault compare apportion b : pro rata ...
Contributory
1 : characterized by or making contributions to a common fund or enterprise ;specif : of, relating to, or being an employee benefit plan to which both employers and employees make contributions 2 : ...
Contributory Fault
: responsibility for aiding in the accomplishment of a bad result (as an injury) ;specif : responsibility of a promisor for causing his or her promise to be impossible to perform NOTE: A promisor ...
Contributory Negligence
see negligence
Control
con·trolled con·trol·ling 1 : to exercise restraining or directing influence over esp. by law 2 : to have power or authority over [precedent s the outcome in this case] 3 : to have ...
Controlled Substance
: a substance (as a drug) whose use and possession is regulated by law (as title 21, chapter 13 of the U.S. Code)
Controller
: comptroller
Controlling
1 a : exercising domination or influence [the principles of law] b : dispositive [judgment debtor's stipulation to pay a specified amount is not "J. H. Friedenthal et al."] 2 : having controlling ...
Controlling Interest
see interest
Controversy
pl: -sies 1 : a state of dispute or disagreement [suits at common law, where the value in shall exceed twenty dollars "U.S. Constitution amend. VII"] 2 : a civil action involving a real and ...
Contumacy
[Latin contumacia, literally, defiance, obstinacy] : willful disobedience of a court order con·tu·ma··cious [kÄ n-tü-mā-shəs, -tyü-] adj
Convention
1 : an agreement between nations for regulation of matters affecting all of them 2 : an agreement enforceable in law : contract 3 : an assembly of persons met for a common purpose ;esp : a ...
Conventional
1 : based on, settled by, or formed by agreement : contractual compare judicial, legal 2 : of, like, or relating to a convention or public meeting
Conventional Annuity
see annuity
Conventional Mortgage
see mortgage
Conventional Obligation
see obligation
Conversion
1 a : the act of changing from one form or use to another b : the act of exchanging one kind of property for another ;esp : the act of exchanging preferred stocks or bonds for shares of common ...
Conversion Clause
a provision in some ARMs allowing it to change to a fixed-rate loan at some point during the term. Usually conversions are allowed at the end of the first adjustment period. At the time of the ...
Convert
1 a : to change from one form or use to another b : to exchange (property) for another esp. of a different kind [if property…is compulsorily or involuntarily ed "Internal Revenue Code"] ;esp ...
Convertible Arm
an adjustable-rate mortgage that provides the borrower the ability to convert to a fixed-rate within a specified time.
Convertible Bond
see bond
Convertible Security
see security
Convey
con·veyed con·vey·ing : to transfer or transmit (property or property rights) to another esp. by a writing (as a deed or will) [agreed to to the estate his Manhattan town house "R. H. ...
Conveyance
1 : an act of conveying [a of land] 2 : an instrument (as a deed) that conveys property rights (as title) [lack of delivery of a "J. D. Calamari and J. M. Perillo"]
Conveyancing
: the act or business of drawing up conveyances (as deeds or leases) con·vey·an·cer n
Convict
[Latin convictus past participle of convincere to find guilty, prove, from com- with, together + vincer to conquer] : to find guilty of a criminal offense [was ed of fraud] compare acquit
Conviction
1 : the act or process of convicting ;also : the final judgment entered after a finding of guilt [a prior of murder] [would not overturn the ] compare acquittal NOTE: Jurisdictions differ as to what ...
Cool
: to lose passion : become calm sometimes used with off or down [the time elapsing…is such that a reasonable man thus provoked would have ed "W. R. LaFave and A. W. Scott, Jr."]
Cool State Of Blood
:an emotional condition in which a person's anger or passion is not great enough to overcome his or her faculties or ability to reason often used in statutory definitions of murder compare cold ...
Cooling Time
: time in which to become calm following provocation compare heat of passion NOTE: If a court finds that the cooling time was sufficient or reasonable, a defendant may not use provocation to reduce a ...
Cooling-Off Period
: a period of time (as after a sale or a call to strike) to allow further consideration or negotiation see also Labor Management Relations Act in the Important Laws section
Cooperative
: of, relating to, or organized as a cooperative
Cooperative (Co-Op)
residents purchase stock in a cooperative corporation that owns a structure; each stockholder is then entitled to live in a specific unit of the structure and is responsible for paying a portion of ...
Cooperative Bank
see bank
Coparcenary
pl: -nar·ies 1 : joint heirship 2 : joint ownership
Coparcener
: a joint heir
Coparty
: a party (as a coplaintiff or codefendant) on the same side of an action
Coplaintiff
: a joint plaintiff
Copyright
: a person's exclusive right to reproduce, publish, or sell his or her original work of authorship (as a literary, musical, dramatic, artistic, or architectural work) see also common-law copyright, ...
Coram Nobis
[Latin, in our presence] : writ of error coram nobis at writ
Core Proceeding
see proceeding
Corespondent
1 : a joint respondent 2 : a person named as guilty of adultery with the defendant in a divorce suit
Coroner
[Anglo-French, recorder of crown pleas, from corone crown] : a public officer whose principal duty is to inquire by an inquest into the cause of death when there is reason to think the death may not ...
Corpora
pl of corpus
Corporal Punishment
: punishment inflicted on a person's body see also cruel and unusual punishment NOTE: The prohibition on cruel and unusual punishment in the Eighth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution imposes limits ...
Corporate
: of or relating to a business corporation
Corporate Immunity
see immunity
Corporate Liability
see liability
Corporate Opportunity Doctrine
: a doctrine of corporate law stating that fiduciaries of the corporation (as directors or officers) may not take for themselves a business opportunity offered to the corporation
Corporation
[Late Latin corporatio, from Latin corporare to form into a body, from corpor- corpus body] : an invisible, intangible, artificial creation of the law existing as a voluntary chartered association of ...
Corporation Counsel
: the city attorney in some cities (as Boston)
Corporeal
: having, consisting of, or relating to a physical material body compare incorporeal cor·po·re·al·ly adv
Corpus
pl: cor·po·ra [-pə-rə] : the main body of a thing ;specif : the principal of a fund, trust, or estate as distinct from income or interest : res
Corpus Delicti
[New Latin, literally, the body of the offense] : the substance of a crime that the prosecutor must prove and that consists of an injury or loss (as death of a victim or disappearance of property) ...
Corpus Juris
[Medieval Latin, literally, a body of law] : a comprehensive collection of the law of a judicial system or of a country or jurisdiction
Correal
[Latin correus person accused along with another, from com- with, together + reus accused person] in the civil law of Louisiana : solidary cor·re·al·i·ty ...
Correction
1 : a decline in market price or business activity following and counteracting a rise 2 : the treatment and rehabilitation of offenders through a program involving penal custody, parole, and ...
Corroborate
-rat·ed -rat·ing [Latin corroboratus, past participle of corroborare to strengthen, from com-, prefix marking completion + robur strength, literally, oak tree] : to support with evidence or ...
Corroborating Evidence
see evidence
Corroborative Evidence
: corroborating evidence at evidence
Corrupt
: having an unlawful or evil motive ;esp : characterized by improper and usually unlawful conduct intended to secure a benefit for oneself or another (as by taking or giving bribes) ...
Corrupt Practices Act
: a law regulating the amount and source of political campaign contributions and requiring detailed reports of expenditures
Corruption Of Blood
:the effect of an attainder which bars a person from inheriting, retaining, or transmitting any estate, rank, or title [no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood "U.S. Constitution art. ...
Cosignatory
: a joint signer
Cosigner
: cosignatory ;esp : a joint signer of a promissory note
Cost
1 : the amount or equivalent paid or charged for something 2 pl : expenses incurred in litigation ;esp : those given by the law or the court to the prevailing party against the losing party
Cost And Freight
: including the cost of goods being shipped and the freight charges
Cost Basis
see basis
Cost Bond
see bond
Cost Of Funds Index (Cofi)
an index used to determine interest rate changes for some adjustable-rate mortgages.
Cost Of Living
:the cost of purchasing those goods and services which are included in an accepted standard level of consumption
Cost Of Living Clause
: a clause in an agreement (as a collective bargaining agreement) that provides for increase of payments (as wages) made under the agreement in some proportion to the increase in the cost of living
Cost Recovery
: depreciation
Cost, Insurance, And Freight
: including the cost of goods being shipped and the freight and insurance charges
Cost-Of-Living Index
: consumer price index
Cosurety
pl: -ties : any of two or more sureties liable on the same obligation co·sure·ty·ship n
Cotenancy
pl: -cies : joint tenancy at tenancy
Cotenant
: joint tenant
Cotrustee
: a joint trustee
Council
: a governmental body: as a : a group elected as a legislative body [city ] b : an administrative body [ on aging] c : an executive body whose members are equal in power and authority compare ...
Councillor
or coun·ci·lor [kan-sə-lər] n : a member of a council coun·cil·lor·ship n
Councilman
pl: -men : a member of a council : councillor
Councilwoman
pl: -wom·en : a woman who is a member of a council
Counsel
pl: counsel [Old French conseil advice, from Latin consilium discussion, advice, council, from consulere to consult] : lawyer : as a : a lawyer participating in the management or trial of a case in ...
Counselor
: counsel
Counselor-At-Law
pl: counselors-at-law : counsel compare attorney-at-law
Count
: charge ;specif : a charge (as in a complaint or indictment) that separately states a cause of action or esp. offense [guilty on all s]
Counter Offer
a rejection to all or part of a purchase offer that negotiates different terms to reach an acceptable sales contract.
Counter Will
see will
Counter-
1 a : contrary : opposite [counterletter] b : opposing : retaliatory [counteraction] 2 : complementary : corresponding [countersign] 3 : duplicate : substitute [counterpart]
Counterclaim
: a claim for relief that is asserted against an opposing party after an original claim has been made compare affirmative defense at defense, cross-action, cross-appeal, cross-claim, interpleader, ...
Counterfeit
[Middle French contrefait, past participle of contrefaire to imitate, draw, paint, from contre- counter- + faire to make] : made in imitation of a genuine article (as a document) without ...
Counterletter
in the civil law of Louisiana : a secret agreement that expresses the true intent of the parties to a simulation ;esp : a writing embodying the agreement [ can have no effects against third persons ...
Counteroffer
: an offer that is made in response to another and that has additional or differing terms NOTE: Under common law, a counteroffer does not constitute an acceptance of an offer and is often considered ...
Counterpart
: one of two corresponding or duplicate copies of a legal instrument
Countersign
: a signature attesting the authenticity of a document already signed by another
Country Of (Last) Residence
The country in which an alien habitually resided prior to entering the United States.
Country Of Birth
The country in which a person is born.
Country Of Chargeability
The independent country to which an immigrant entering under the preference system is accredited for purposes of numerical limitations.
Country Of Citizenship
The country in which a person is born (and has not renounced or lost citizenship) or naturalized and to which that person owes allegiance and by which he or she is entitled to be protected.
Country Of Former Allegiance
The previous country of citizenship of a naturalized U.S. citizen or of a person who derived U.S. citizenship.
Country Of Nationality
The country of a person's citizenship or country in which the person is deemed a national.
County Attorney
: a district attorney for a county
County Commission
1 : a commission for a county 2 : a court in West Virginia having jurisdiction over certain probate matters including civil commitments
County Court
often cap both Cs : a court in some states that has a designated jurisdiction usually both civil and criminal within the limits of a county
County Court At Law
often cap C&C&L : a court in some of the more populated counties of Texas that takes on some of the responsibilities of the constitutional county court
County Recorder's Court
often cap C&R&C : a court of limited jurisdiction in several counties in Georgia
Coupon
[French, from Old French, piece, from couper to cut] : a statement of due interest to be cut from a debt instrument and esp. a bearer bond when payable and presented for payment ;also : the interest ...
Coupon Bond
see bond
Course Of Dealing
:the conduct of parties to a business deal during past business deals that may be used as a basis for understanding each other's expressions and conduct during the current deal compare course of ...
Course Of Performance
:the conduct of parties during a business deal requiring repeated performances that creates an understanding between the parties as to performance and that may be used to help interpret their ...
Court
[Old French, enclosed space, royal entourage, court of justice, from Latin cohort- cohors farmyard, armed force, retinue] 1 a : an official assembly for the administration of justice : a unit of the ...
Court Christian
: ecclesiastical court
Court Interpreter
a court employee who orally translates what is said in court from English into the language of a non-English-speaking party or witness and translates that person's testimony into English.
Court Martial
A criminal court for trying and punishing those in the armed forces who violate the Uniform Code of Military Justice. Established under the constitutional power of Congress to regulate the armed ...
Court Of Admiralty
:admiralty
Court Of Appeals
often cap C&A : a court hearing appeals from the decisions of lower courts: as a : an intermediate court of the U.S. federal judicial system b : a state appellate court called also court of ...
Court Of Chancery
often cap both Cs : court of equity
Court Of Civil Appeals
:the intermediate court in Alabama for appeals of civil matters
Court Of Claims
1 often cap both Cs : a court (as in Illinois, Michigan, New York, and West Virginia) that has jurisdiction primarily over cases involving claims against the state 2 cap : a former court succeeded ...
Court Of Common Pleas
often cap C&C&P : an intermediate-level court in some states (as Arkansas, Connecticut, and Ohio) having limited jurisdiction over various civil and criminal matters
Court Of Criminal Appeals
1 often cap C&C&A : a court of appeals in some states (as Alabama, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Texas) that hears criminal appeals 2 cap : the intermediate appellate military court made up of ...
Court Of Domestic Relations
often cap C&D&R : family court
Court Of Equity
often cap C&E : a court having jurisdiction over suits in equity and administering justice and providing remedies according to the rules and principles of equity compare court of law NOTE: Rule 1 ...
Court Of Inquiry
:a military court that inquires into and reports on some military matter (as an officer's questionable conduct)
Court Of Last Resort
:a court of final appeal in a jurisdiction see also court of appeals, supreme court, supreme court of appeals, supreme judicial court
Court Of Law
:court ;specif : a court that hears cases and decides them on the basis of statutes and common law compare court of equity
Court Of Military Review
:court of criminal appeals
Court Of Record
:a court whose acts and proceedings are kept on permanent record
Court Of Special Appeals
:the intermediate appellate court in Maryland
Court Reporter
: a stenographer who records and transcribes a verbatim report of all proceedings in a court of law
Courthouse
: a building in which court is regularly held
Courtroom
: a room where court is held
Courtroom Deputy Clerk
a court employee who assists the judge by keeping track of witnesses, evidence, and other trial matters, and sometimes by scheduling cases.
Covenant
1 : an official agreement or compact [an international on human rights] 2 a : a contract in its entirety or a promise within a contract for the performance or nonperformance of a particular act [a ...
Covenant Not To Compete
: a covenant in an agreement (as for the sale of a business) by which one party agrees not to engage in the same business or a similar business in a particular area for a period of time
Covenantee
: a person to whom or an entity to which a promise in the form of a covenant is made
Covenantor
: the party to a covenant who is bound to perform the obligation expressed in it
Covenants
legally enforceable terms that govern the use of property. These terms are transferred with the property deed. Discriminatory covenants are illegal and unenforceable. Also known as a condition, ...
Cover
1 : insure [this policy s other family drivers] 2 : to give protection against or compensation or indemnification for [doesn't flood damage] vi : to obtain cover [where the seller anticipatorily ...
Coverage
1 : protection or indemnification by an insurance policy [the policy provides extensive against burglary] 2 : a risk assumed by the terms of an insurance contract [the policy lists four s: ...
Covered Option
see option
Coverture
[Anglo-French, literally, shelter, covering, from Old French, from covert, past participle of covrir to cover] : the inclusion of a woman in the legal person of her husband upon marriage under common ...
Cp
court of common pleas
Cpsc
Consumer Product Safety Commission see also the Important Agencies section
Cracker
A cracker is one who engages in one or more of the following: breaks into a computer system; figures out ways to bypass security or license protection in software; intentionally breaches computer ...
Craft Union
: a labor union with membership limited to workers in the same craft (as carpentry or plumbing) compare industrial union
Credit
1 : recognition see also full faith and credit 2 a : the balance in an account which may be drawn upon and repaid later compare loan b : the use of resources (as money) in the present obtained by ...
Credit Bureau
: a private business that compiles information on consumers' creditworthiness and provides this information to lenders
Credit Counseling
education on how to improve bad credit and how to avoid having more debt than can be repaid.
Credit Enhancement
a method used by a lender to reduce default of a loan by requiring collateral, mortgage insurance, or other agreements.
Credit Grantor
the lender that provides a loan or credit.
Credit History
a record of an individual that lists all debts and the payment history for each. The report that is generated from the history is called a credit report. Lenders use this information to gauge a ...
Credit Insurance
: insurance paid for by a debtor to assure payment of any outstanding credit balance in the event of death or disability
Credit Loss Ratio
the ratio of credit-related losses to the dollar amount of MBS outstanding and total mortgages owned by the corporation.
Credit Related Expenses
foreclosed property expenses plus the provision for losses.
Credit Related Losses
foreclosed property expenses combined with charge-offs.
Credit Repair Companies
Private, for-profit businesses that claim to offer consumers credit and debt repayment difficulties assistance with their credit problems and a bad credit report.
Credit Report
a report generated by the credit bureau that contains the borrower's credit history for the past seven years. Lenders use this information to determine if a loan will be granted.
Credit Risk
a term used to describe the possibility of default on a loan by a borrower.
Credit Score
a score calculated by using a person's credit report to determine the likelihood of a loan being repaid on time. Scores range from about 360 - 840: a lower score meaning a person is a higher risk, ...
Credit Union
: a cooperative association that makes small loans to its members at low interest rates and offers other banking services (as savings and checking accounts)
Creditor
: a person to whom a debt is owed ;esp : a person to whom money or goods are due compare debtor, obligor general creditor : a creditor who is not secured by a lien or other security interest ...
Creditor Beneficiary
see beneficiary
Creditor's Bill
see bill
Creditors' Meeting
see 341 meeting
Credits
Reductions of tax liability allowed by Congress for various purposes.
Creditworthiness
the way a lender measures the ability of a person to qualify and repay a loan.
Creditworthy
: likely to be able to repay loans or consumer credit cred·it·wor·thi·ness n
Crewman
A foreign national serving in a capacity required for normal operations and service on board a vessel or aircraft. Crewmen are admitted for twenty
Crime
[Middle French, from Latin crimen fault, accusation, crime] 1 : conduct that is prohibited and has a specific punishment (as incarceration or fine) prescribed by public law compare delict, tort 2 : ...
Crime Against Humanity
:an inhumane act (as enslavement) committed against civilians before or during a war for which criminal liability is imposed by a domestic or international tribunal see also war crime
Crime Against Nature
:a sexual act (as of bestiality) that is regarded by the law as abnormal ;also : the crime of committing such an act
Crime Of Violence
:a crime that by its nature poses a substantial risk that force will be used against a person or property NOTE: A record of crimes of violence is used esp. to determine career offender status under ...
Crimen Falsi
[Latin, literally, crime of falsehood] : a crime (as perjury or fraud) involving deceit or falsification
Criminal
1 : relating to, involving, or being a crime [ neglect] [ conduct] 2 : relating to crime or its prosecution [brought a action] [ code] compare civil, penal
Criminal Assault
see assault
Criminal Attempt
: attempt
Criminal Case
a case prosecuted by the government, on behalf of society at large, against an individual or organization accused of committing a crime. If the defendant is found guilty, the sentence (or punishment) ...
Criminal Civil Rights Violation
A criminal civil rights violation requires that the offender use force or the threat of force against the victim. An assault that is committed because of the victim's race or sexual orientation (i.e. ...
Criminal Conspiracy
see conspiracy
Criminal Contempt
see contempt
Criminal Conversation
: the tort of committing adultery with another's spouse compare alienation of affections NOTE: This tort is no longer recognized in most jurisdictions.
Criminal Court
: a court that has jurisdiction to try criminal defendants
Criminal Forfeiture
: the forfeiture of property used in committing a crime see also seize compare confiscate
Criminal Homicide
see homicide
Criminal Intent
see intent
Criminal Law
: public law that deals with crimes and their prosecution compare civil law NOTE: Substantive criminal law defines crimes, and procedural criminal law sets down criminal procedure. Substantive ...
Criminal Lawyer
: a lawyer who specializes in criminal law
Criminal Liability
see liability
Criminal Negligence
see negligence
Criminal Procedure
: the steps taken and methods used in bringing and conducting a criminal action ;also : a course of study in the rules of procedure in criminal actions
Criminal Record
a record listing a defendant's previous arrests and convictions. A copy of the defendant's criminal record, if any, must be given to the defense upon request during discovery.
Criminal Syndicalism
: advocacy of unlawful means (as acts of violence) to bring about a change in industry or government compare sabotage, sedition
Criminal Trespass
see trespass
Criminalist
: one who practices criminalistics as a profession
Criminalistics
: application of scientific techniques in collecting and analyzing physical evidence in criminal cases
Criminality
1 : the quality or state of being criminal [can't understand the of his act] 2 : crime [violent ]
Criminalize
-ized -iz·ing : to make criminal : outlaw [the statute criminalizing the use of contraceptives "R. H. Bork"] compare illegalize crim·i·nal·i·za·tion ...
Criminally
1 : according to criminal law [ liable] [ insane] 2 : in a manner that constitutes a crime [ negligent]
Criminogenic
: producing or leading to crime [to narrow the demoralizing and abyss between affluent and poor "Elliott Currie"]
Criminology
: the scientific study of crime as a social phenomenon, of criminals, and of penal treatment crim·i·no·log·i·cal [kri-mə-nə-lÄ -jə-kəl] adj ...
Critical Stage
: a stage in a criminal proceeding at which the accused's rights or defenses may be affected and which triggers the Sixth Amendment right to counsel see also Amendment VI to the Constitution in the ...
Crm
Acronym for Customer Relationship Management.  CRM is an industry term for software solutions that help enterprise businesses manage customer relationships in an organized way.  An example of a CRM ...
Cross Bill
see bill
Cross Remainder
see remainder
Cross-Action
: an action brought by a defendant in an existing action against a plaintiff or codefendant compare counterclaim, cross-appeal, cross-claim, third-party claim
Cross-Appeal
: an appeal taken by an appellee against the appellant compare counterclaim, cross-action, cross-claim cross-appeal vb
Cross-Appellant
: a party that cross-appeals
Cross-Claim
: a claim against a party on the same side of an action (as a coplaintiff or codefendant) compare counterclaim, cross-action, cross-appeal, third-party claim NOTE: Under Rule 13(g) of the Federal ...
Cross-Claimant
: a party that cross-claims
Cross-Collateral
: collateral given to secure preexisting unsecured debt in return for new loans
Cross-Collateralize
-ized -iz·ing : to secure (a preexisting debt) with cross-collateral cross-collateralization n
Cross-Complaint
1 : a claim brought by a defendant against another party to the lawsuit 2 : a claim brought by a defendant against a person not a party to the original lawsuit for a related cause of action
Cross-Examination
: the examination of a witness who has already testified in order to check or discredit the witness's testimony, knowledge, or credibility see also confrontation clause compare direct examination, ...
Cross-License
-censed -cens·ing : to license (a patent or invention) to another to use in return for a similar license [cross-licensed its patents with a Japanese company]
Cross-Motion
: a motion that attempts to counter a similar motion filed by an opposing party [after the plaintiffs moved to recuse his counsel, the defendant filed a to disqualify theirs]
Cross-Site_scripting
Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) refers to a kind of computer security vulnerability, most often found in web applications, whereby malicious web programmers are able to inject code into websites viewed by ...
Cruel And Unusual Punishment
: punishment that is offensive to the contemporary morality or jurisprudence (as by being degrading, inflicting unnecessary and intentional pain, or being disproportionate to the offense) [nor cruel ...
Cruelty
pl: -ties 1 a : an intentional or criminally negligent act that causes pain and suffering [ to animals] [ to children] b : mistreatment or neglect that causes pain and suffering compare abuse NOTE: ...
Ct
court
Cta
cum testamento annexo
Culpable
: deserving condemnation or blame as wrong or harmful cul·pa·bil·i·ty [kəl-pə-bi-lə-tē] n cul·pa·ble·ness n cul·pa·bly adv
Culpable Negligence
: criminal negligence at negligence
Cum Testamento Annexo
[New Latin, literally, with a will attached] : attended by a will see also administrator cum testamento annexo at administrator
Cumulative
1 : increasing by successive additions 2 : tending to prove the same point [ testimony] 3 : following in time
Cumulative Dividend
see dividend
Cumulative Evidence
see evidence
Cumulative Sentence
see sentence
Cumulative Voting
: a system of voting for corporate directors in which each shareholder is entitled to as many votes as he or she has shares times the number of directors to be elected compare straight voting
Curative
: serving or intended to cure defects [ instructions to the jury]
Curator
[Latin, guardian, from curare to take care of] in the civil law of Louisiana : a person appointed by a court to care for the property of an absent person or to care for the person or property of ...
Cure
cured cur·ing vt : to deal with in a way that eliminates or corrects: as a : to use judicial procedures to undo (damage to a litigant's case caused by procedural errors made during a trial) ...
Current Asset
see asset
Current Assets
Assets of a business that can be liquidated within a relatively short period of time
Current Liabilities
Debts that must be paid within a relatively short period of time, usually within one year
Current Monthly Income
The average monthly income received by the debtor over the six calendar months before commencement of the bankruptcy case, including regular contributions to household expenses from nondebtors and ...
Current Ratio
A ratio of a business' current assets to its current liabilities
Curtesy
pl: -sies [Anglo-French curteisie, literally, favor, courtesy, originally in the phrase par la corteysie de Engleterre (tenancy) by courtesy of (the law of) England (as opposed to natural right)] : a ...
Curtilage
[Anglo-French curtillage enclosed land belonging to a house, kitchen garden, from Old French cortillage kitchen garden, from cortil garden, ultimately from Latin cohort- cohors farmyard] : the area ...
Custodial
1 : occurring during or in connection with custody [a interrogation] 2 : having sole custody or custody a greater portion of the time [a parent]
Custodial Arrest
see arrest
Custodian
: an individual entrusted with guarding and keeping property or having custody of a person: as a : the warden of a prison b : a person given custody of a child by court order c : a person named to ...
Custody
[Latin custodia, from custod- custos guardian] : care or control exercised by a person or authority over something or someone: as a : supervision and control over property that usually includes ...
Custom
1 : a practice common to many or to a particular place or institution ;esp : a long-established practice that is generally recognized as having the force of law see also section 1983 compare usage ...
Customer
1 : a person or business that purchases a commodity or service 2 a : a person or entity having an account with a bank or on whose behalf the bank has agreed to collect items b : a person or entity ...
Customs
The duties, toll, tribute, or tariff payable upon merchandise exported or imported.
Cut-Off Date
The date that determines whether a preference immigrant visa applicant can be scheduled for an immigrant visa interview in any given month. The cut-off date is the priority date of the first applicant ...
Cy Pres
[Anglo-French, as near (as possible)] : a rule in the law of trusts and estates that provides for the interpretation of instruments as nearly as possible in conformity with the intention of the ...
Cyberlaw
: the area of law dealing with regulation of use of the Internet
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