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FindLaw Legal Dictionary

The FindLaw Legal Dictionary -- free access to over 8260 definitions of legal terms. Search for a definition or browse our legal glossaries.


I-551 (Green Card)
Permanent residence card or alien registration receipt card or "green card." See Lawful Permanent Resident.
Internal Revenue Code see also the Important Laws section
Acronym for Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. ICANN is the private, non-profit corporation, which is responsible for IP address space allocation, protocol parameter assignment, and ...
1 International Chamber of Commerce 2 Interstate Commerce Commission see also the Important Agencies section
[Latin, same] : something previously mentioned : the same authority used in citations to cases and other works to refer to an immediately preceding reference compare infra, supra NOTE: Idem is ...
Idem Sonans
[Latin, sounding the same] : relating to or being two names having the same or similar pronunciation or sound [the two names are not idem sonans "Johnson v. Estelle, 704 F.2d 232 (1983)"] [the idem ...
-fied -fy·ing 1 : to consider as united or associated (as in interests or principles) [can ask leading questions of a witness who is identified with an adverse party] 2 : to establish the ...
pl: -ties 1 : sameness of essential character or aspect [collateral estoppel requires of the issues and the parties] 2 a : separate or distinct existence [when movables lose their or become an ...
Identity Theft
see theft
: a person with esp. profound mental retardation NOTE: While the terms idiot imbecile, and moron survive in many state codes and statutes, they are generally no longer used in both medical and legal ...
: no bill at bill
: contrary to or in violation of a law : illicit unlawful [an contract] il·le·gal·ly adv
pl: -ties 1 : the quality or state of being illegal 2 : an illegal action
: to make or declare illegal compare criminalize
: the quality or state of being illegitimate
1 : not recognized by the law as offspring ;specif : born out of marriage NOTE: An illegitimate child is usually legitimated by his or her parents' later marriage. Illegitimate children generally ...
: not permitted : unlawful [an motive to defeat or evade the taxes "In re Haas, 48 F.3d 1153 (1995)"]
: likely to mislead or deceive : false deceptive [an plea bargain leading to a longer sentence than expected]
Illusory Contract
see contract
Illusory Promise
see promise
Illustrative Evidence
see evidence
Acronym for Internet Message Access Protocol. IMAP is a standard protocol for accessing e-mail from a local server. A simpler e-mail protocol is Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3), which downloads mail to ...
: a mentally retarded or deficient person ;esp : a severely mentally retarded person used esp. formerly ; see also idiot
: not essential, pertinent, or of consequence [the jury could have discounted the medical history evidence, or while accepting its accuracy, found it "Willett v. State, 911 S.W.2d 937 (1995)"] ...
Immediate Annuity
see annuity
Immediate Relative
Spouse, widow(er) and unmarried children under the age of 21 of an American citizen. A parent is an immediate relative if the American citizen is 21 years of age or older. There are no numerical ...
Immediate Relatives
Certain immigrants who because of their close relationship to U.S. citizens are exempt from the numerical limitations imposed on immigration to the United States. Immediate relatives are: spouses of ...
See Permanent Resident Alien.
Immigrant Visa
A visa for a person who plans to live indefinitely and permanently in the United States.
Immigration Act Of 1990
Public Law 101-649 (Act of November 29, 1990), which increased the limits on legal immigration to the United States, revised all grounds for exclusion and deportation, authorized temporary protected ...
Immigration And Nationality Act
The Act (INA), which, along with other immigration laws, treaties, and conventions of the United States, relates to the immigration, temporary admission, naturalization, and removal of aliens.
Immigration And Nationality Act (Ina)
American immigration law. The Immigration and Nationality Act, or INA, was created in 1952, Public Law No. 82-414. The INA has been amended many times over the years, but is still the basic body of ...
Immigration And Naturalization Service (Ins)
A branch of the Department of Justice that formerly existed and had responsibility for immigration and naturalization. INS was renamed and became part of Department of Homeland Security (DHS) on March ...
Immigration Judge
An attorney appointed by the Attorney General to act as an administrative judge within the Executive Office for Immigration Review. They are qualified to conduct specified classes of proceedings, ...
Immigration Marriage Fraud Amendments Of 1986
Public Law 99-639 (Act of 11/10/86), which was passed in order to deter immigration-related marriage fraud. Its major provision stipulates that aliens deriving their immigrant status based on a ...
Immigration Reform And Control Act (Irca) Of 1986
Public Law 99-603 (Act of 11/6/86), which was passed in order to control and deter illegal immigration to the United States. Its major provisions stipulate legalization of undocumented aliens who had ...
-lized -liz·ing : to make immobile ;specif : to turn (movable property) into immovable property (as by incorporating it into a building) im·mo·bi·li·za·tion ...
: incapable of being moved see also immovable property at property
Immovable Property
see property
: having immunity : exempt
pl: -ties [Latin immunitas, from immunis exempt from public service, exempt, from in- non- + -munis (from munia services)] 1 : exemption from a duty or liability that is granted by law to a person or ...
-nized -niz·ing : to grant immunity to [the ultimately ill-fated effort to state judges from the burdens of the federal income tax "J. K. Owens"] im·mu·ni·za·tion ...
1 : to damage or make worse by or as if by diminishing [ed health] 2 : to diminish the value of (property or property rights) ;specif : to diminish the value of (legal contractual obligations) to ...
or em·pan·el [im-, em-] vt -eled or: -elled -el·ing or: -el·ling : to form (a jury) esp. by summoning and selecting the members ;specif : to enroll (a list of selected jurors) ...
: not partial or biased : treating or affecting all equally im·par·ti·al·i·ty [im-pÄ r-shē-a-lə-tē] n im·par·tial·ly adv
Impartial Chairman
: arbitrator mediator ;specif : an arbitrator who serves on a committee or board compare umpire
: a point in esp. labor negotiations at which reaching an agreement is impossible because neither party is willing to compromise or change position
[Anglo-French empecher, from Old French empeechier to hinder, from Late Latin impedicare to fetter, from Latin in- + pedica fetter, from ped- pes foot] 1 : to charge with a crime or misconduct ...
Impeachment Evidence
see evidence
: something that prevents or interferes with a process, power, or right [should have known of the legal s to the execution of any judgment against the police jury "Penalber v. Blount, 550 So. 2d 577 ...
: not perfect or complete: as a : not enforceable : enforceable only under certain conditions [an obligation] b : lacking an element otherwise required by law compare perfect
Imperfect Self-Defense
: a defense based on self-defense that does not shield the defendant from all liability but reduces the liability esp. because the defendant actually but unreasonably believed that he or she was in ...
: not permissible im·per·mis·si·bly adv
-at·ed -at·ing : to assume (another's or a fictitious identity) without authority and with fraudulent intent [ a police officer] [impersonated a public servant by saying he was from the ...
: the act or an instance of impersonating another ;also : the crime of impersonation
[Anglo-French empleder, from Old French emplaidier, from en- thoroughly + plaidier to plead] : to bring into a lawsuit ;specif : to bring (a third party who is or may be liable to the plaintiff or ...
: the act or procedural device of impleading a third party ;specif : a petition or complaint brought in a lawsuit by a plaintiff or defendant against a third party who may be liable to that ...
-cat·ed -cat·ing : to involve as a consequence, corollary, or natural inference [firing the federal employee because of her protest s the First Amendment]
1 : the act of implicating : the state of being implicated 2 : the act of implying : the state of being implied 3 : something implied
: capable of being recognized though unexpressed : implied im·plic·it·ly adv
: not directly or specifically made known (as in the terms of a contract) ;specif : recognized (as by a court) as existing by reason of an inference and esp. on legal or equitable grounds [for ...
Implied Acquittal
: an acquittal of a more serious offense (as first-degree murder) that is considered to result from a verdict which convicts the defendant of a lesser included offense while remaining silent on the ...
Implied Agency
see agency
Implied Authority
see authority
Implied Contract
see contract
Implied Easement
see easement
Implied In Fact
: recognized by inference based on the facts (as the parties' conduct or statements)
Implied In Fact Contract
:implied contract at contract
Implied In Law
: created and imposed by law (as statutory or case law) [it contradicted an implied in law term of the writing "J. D. Calamari and J. M. Perillo"]
Implied Malice
see malice
Implied Notice
see notice
Implied Power
see power
Implied Promise
see promise
Implied Trust
see trust
Implied Warranty
see warranty
im·plied im·ply·ing 1 : to recognize as existing by inference or necessary consequence esp. on legal or equitable grounds [in ordinary circumstances…the law would that it was the ...
-tuned -tun·ing vt : to press or urge with troublesome persistence [who solicits, requests, commands, s or intentionally aids another person to engage in conduct which constitutes an offense ...
pl: -ties 1 : the quality or state of being impossible ;also : the affirmative defense that something (as performance) is impossible 2 : something impossible 3 : impossibility of performance in ...
Impossibility Of Performance
see impossibility
: not possible : incapable of being done, attained, or fulfilled [a party's performance is in part]
or im·pos·ter [im-pÄ s-tər] n : one that assumes a false identity or title for the purpose of deception : impersonator
: to take control of in the custody of the law or by legal authority [ a vehicle] [the police ed the dwelling until the search warrant was obtained] im·pound·ment n
1 : the state of being impracticable 2 : a doctrine in contract law: relief from obligations under a contract may be granted when performance has been rendered excessively difficult, expensive, or ...
: excessively difficult to perform esp. by reason of an unforeseen contingency [a contract made by the new regulation]
: not subject to prescription : inalienable
: to confine in prison esp. as punishment for a crime compare false imprisonment im·pris·on·ment n
a term in prison served by an offender as part of a criminal sentence.
: not proper: as a : not in accord with correct procedure [an venue] b : wrongful ;specif : in violation of a constitution [the denial of trial by jury was held ] im·prop·er·ly ...
: a usually permanent addition to or modification of real property that enhances its capital value and is distinguished from an ordinary repair in being designed to make the property more useful or ...
im·put·ed im·put·ing 1 : to consider or calculate as a value or cost (as for taxation) ;broadly : to reckon as an actual thing [ a benefit from the use of the car] 2 in the ...
Imputed Income
: income calculated from the supposed value of intangible or non-cash sources
: under the law of : based on [brought an action negligence "National Law Journal"]
In Absentia
[Latin] : in absence [sentenced in absentia]
In Banc
var of en banc
In Camera
[New Latin, literally, in a chamber] : in private ;esp : in a judge's chambers [the judge reviewed the sensitive material in camera] [an in camera proceeding] compare open court
In Commendam
[New Latin, translation of French (societé) en commandité (company) in limited partnership] in the civil law of Louisiana : characterized by partnership liability that is limited to the ...
In Esse
[Medieval Latin] : in actual existence compare in posse
In Facie Curiae
[New Latin] : before or in the presence of the court [contempt in facie curiae]
In Favorem Libertatis
: in favor of freedom or liberty [any doubt as to the free use of immovable property must be resolved in favorem libertatis "Louisiana Civil Code"]
In Fieri
[Medieval Latin] 1 : being in the process of accomplishment : pending 2 : beginning to have existence : not yet completely formed
In Flagrante Delicto
: flagrante delicto
In Forma Pauperis
[Medieval Latin, in the form of a pauper] : as a poor person : relieved of the fees and costs of a legal action because of inability to pay [allowed to file an appeal in forma pauperis] [in forma ...
In Fraudem Legis
[Latin] : in circumvention of the rules of law
In Futuro
[Medieval Latin] : in the future
In Globo
[Latin, in a mass] : as a unit rather than separately [child support in globo for two or more children "Louisiana Civil Code"]
In Jure
[Latin] : in right, law, or justice
In Limine
[Latin, on the threshold] : at the beginning : as a preliminary matter ;specif : before a particular procedure or proceeding takes place
In Loco Parentis
[Latin] : in the place of a parent [either parent of a minor, guardian, or a person standing in loco parentis to the minor "Code of Alabama"] NOTE: In order for a person to be considered in loco ...
In Pais
[Anglo-French en pais in the country, outside court] 1 : out of court : without judicial proceedings 2 a : not in writing b : not of record
In Pari Causa
[Late Latin, in a like case] : in a case where all parties stand equal in right according to law
In Pari Delicto
[New Latin, in like offense] : in equal fault or wrong used of parties to a lawsuit
In Pari Materia
[Late Latin, in a like matter] : on the same subject or matter : in a similar case NOTE: It is a doctrine in statutory construction that statutes that are in pari materia must be construed together. ...
In Personam
[Latin, against a person] : against a person for the purpose of imposing a liability or obligation to do or not do something [an action in personam] [an in personam suit] see also in personam ...
In Personam Judgment
see judgment
In Personam Jurisdiction
see jurisdiction
In Posse
[Medieval Latin, in possibility] : not in actuality : having a potential to exist compare in esse
In Praesenti
[Latin] : in the present
In Propria Persona
[Latin] : in one's own person : without the assistance of an attorney : pro se [the defendant appeared in propria persona]
In Re
[Latin] : in the matter of used in the title or name of a case where the proceeding is in rem or quasi in rem and not in personam (as in a matter involving a probate or bankruptcy estate, a ...
In Rem
[Latin] : against or with respect to a thing (as a right, status, or interest in property) without reference to the persons involved [when the Government is proceeding against property in rem "Austin ...
In Rem Judgment
see judgment
In Rem Jurisdiction
see jurisdiction
In Solido
[New Latin] in the civil law of Louisiana : for the whole : involving all [an in solido obligation] [if several persons have jointly borrowed the same object, they are bound for it in solido to the ...
In Status
It's important to understand the concept of immigration status and the consequences of violating that status. Being aware of the requirements and possible consequences will make it more likely that ...
In Terrorem
[Latin, so as to produce terror] : by way of threat or intimidation : serving or intended to threaten or intimidate [overbroad covenants not to compete which have in terrorem effect on employees "J. ...
In Toto
[Latin, on the whole] : as a whole : in total [admitted the disputed testimony in toto] [refused to allow the will in toto]
In Utero
[Latin] : in the uterus : before birth [an injury suffered in utero] [that her condition could possibly be linked to in utero exposure "Burgess v. Eli Lilly & Co., 995 F.2d 646 (1993)"]
In Ventre Sa Mere
: in the womb : in utero
1 a : made in a form other than money [an contribution to a political campaign] b : made without conversion (as of assets) into money [an distribution of assets] 2 : made in a form or amount ...
See Immigration and Nationality Act.
: not admissible [ evidence] [ testimony] in·ad·mis·si·bil·i·ty [-mi-sə-bi-lə-tē] n in·ad·mis·si·bly adv
: an accidental oversight (as failing to sign a form)
Inadvertent Discovery
: unexpected finding of incriminating evidence in plain view by the police compare inevitable discovery NOTE: In Coolidge v. New Hampshire, 403 U.S. 443 (1971), the U.S. Supreme Court held that ...
: incapable of being alienated, surrendered, or transferred [ rights] in·alien·abil·i·ty [-āl-yə-nə-bi-lə-tē, -ā-lē-ə-] n ...
: lacking legal qualification or power (as by reason of mental incompetence) see also incapacity
-tat·ed -tat·ing 1 : to make legally incapable or ineligible [mental illness alone will not a person from making a valid contract "Landmark Med. Ctr. v. Gauthier, 635 A.2d 1145 (1994)"] 2 ...
pl: -ties 1 : the quality or state of being incapable ;esp : lack of legal qualifications due to age or mental condition compare capacity 2 : the inability of an injured worker to perform the ...
-at·ed -at·ing [Latin incarceratus, past participle of incarcerare, from in- in + carcer prison] : imprison in·car·ce·ra·tion [in-kÄ ...
[Latin incestus sexual impurity, from incestus impure, from in- not + castus pure] : sexual intercourse between persons so closely related that they are forbidden by law to marry ;also : the crime ...
Inchmaree Clause
[after Inchmaree, a British steamer whose 1884 sinking in Liverpool harbor resulted in its formulation] : a clause in a marine insurance policy that covers damage or loss caused by the negligence of ...
1 a : not yet made complete, certain, or specific : not perfected see also inchoate lien at lien b : not yet transformed into actual use or possession [until an employee has earned his retirement ...
Inchoate Lien
see lien
1 : a distinct occurrence or event [an of sexual harassment] 2 : a subordinate, dependent, or consequential element [the search was a legitimate to the arrest] [child support and other s of divorce] ...
Incident Of Ownership
:any of several rights (as the right to change beneficiaries) that may be exercised over a life insurance policy which are used as criteria for the inclusion of the value of a policy in a decedent's ...
1 : subordinate or secondary in importance or position [ benefits] 2 : incident 3 : occurring by chance or in isolation [ use of a person's image] in·ci·den·tal·ly adv
Incidental Beneficiary
see beneficiary
Incidental Damages
see damage
in·cit·ed in·cit·ing : to urge on [ a riot] in·cite·ment n
Included Offense
: lesser included offense [permitted…to plead guilty to a logical included offense "W. R. LaFave and J. H. Israel"]
: a gain or recurrent benefit usually measured in money that derives from capital or labor ;also : the amount of such gain received in a period of time [an of $20,000 a year]
Income Beneficiary
see beneficiary
Income Bond
see bond
Income Statement
A presentation of the sales, expenses, and profit or loss of a business on a periodic basis
Income Tax
: a tax on the net income of an individual or a business compare excise, property tax
: the state or fact of being incompetent compare competency
: incompetence
1 : not legally qualified: as a : lacking legal capacity (as because of age or mental deficiency) b : incapable due to mental or physical condition compare competent c : lacking authority, power, ...
Incontestability Clause
: a clause in an insurance policy that forbids the insurer from disputing the policy (as on the ground that the insured made false statements) after a set period of time
Inconvenient Forum
: an inappropriate or oppressive forum (as one in a distant jurisdiction) for a legal action ;esp : one to which the doctrine of forum non conveniens is applicable
-rat·ed -rat·ing vt 1 : to unite with something else to form a whole [ the agreement into the divorce] 2 : to form (as a business) into a legal corporation 3 : to include (rights ...
: any of the persons who join as original members in incorporating a company
: not tangible : having no material body or form [ hereditaments] [an right] compare corporeal
-nat·ed -nat·ing 1 : to charge with involvement in a crime [he was incriminated in the conspiracy] 2 : to suggest or show involvement of in a crime [among the evidence that incriminated ...
: showing or suggesting involvement in a crime [ testimony]
: incriminating [made statements to the police] compare exculpatory
var of encumber
var of encumbrance
in·curred in·cur·ring : to become liable or subject to : bring down upon oneself [ obligations] [ expenses]
Indecent Assault
see assault
Indecent Exposure
: the exposing of one's private body parts (as the genitals) either recklessly or intentionally and under circumstances likely to cause offense or affront NOTE: Indecent exposure is generally ...
: not capable of being annulled or voided [an right] in·de·fea·si·bly adv
Indefinite Failure Of Issue
see failure of issue
1 a : the action of indemnifying b : the condition of being indemnified 2 : indemnity
-fied -fy·ing [Latin indemnis unharmed, from in- not + damnum damage] 1 : to secure against hurt, loss, or damage 2 : to compensate or reimburse for incurred hurt, loss, or damage ...
: one that is indemnified
: one that indemnifies
pl: -ties 1 a : security against hurt, loss, or damage b : exemption from incurred penalties or liabilities 2 a : indemnification b : something (as a payment) that indemnifies compare ...
[Old French endenture an indented document, from endenter to indent (divide a document into sections with irregular edges that can be matched for authentication), from en- thoroughly + dent tooth] 1 ...
1 : not dependent on others (as parents) for livelihood ;esp : not a dependent [declared she was on her financial aid form] 2 a : not affiliated with another usually larger unit [an adjuster] b : ...
Independent Administrator
see administrator
Independent Agency
see agency
Independent Contractor
: one that contracts to do work or perform a service for another and that retains total and free control over the means or methods used in doing the work or performing the service compare employee
Independent Counsel
: an official appointed by the court at the request of the U.S. Attorney General to investigate and prosecute criminal violations by high government officials, members of Congress, or directors of a ...
Independent Medical Examination (Ime)
In many situations, an employer and insurance company will want to have an injured employee seen by a particular physician in order to obtain on objective evaluation of the employee's health. An ...
Independent Source
1 : a source of evidence that is not connected with unlawful conduct which uncovers the same evidence 2 : a doctrine that permits use of evidence obtained independently of unlawful conduct which ...
Indeterminate Sentence
see sentence
: a numerical measure or indicator (as of inflation or economic performance) see also consumer price index
Index Fund
see fund
Index Option
see option
Indian Title
see title
[Latin, plural of indicium sign, from indicare to point out] : distinctive indications [ of reliability]
[alteration of earlier indite, from Anglo-French enditer, from Old French, to write down, ultimately from Latin indicere to proclaim, from in- toward + dicere to say] : to charge with a crime by the ...
: making one liable to indictment [an offense]
1 : the action or the legal process of indicting 2 a : a formal written statement framed by a prosecuting authority and found by a grand jury that charges a person or persons with an offense compare ...
: impoverished hardship and deprivation
: suffering from indigence [the defendant was provided with counsel] indigent n
pl: -ties : persistent and intolerable behavior toward a spouse esp. as a manifestation of settled estrangement
Indirect Contempt
see contempt
Indirect Evidence
see evidence
Indirect Loss
see loss
Indirect Tax
: excise
: having rights so connected to the claims of the parties to an action that the action cannot be adjudicated without affecting those rights see also indispensable party at party
Individual Action
: direct action
Individual Retirement Account
often cap I&R&A : ira
Individual Retirement Account (Ira)
A tax-deferred savings account in which the employee contributes no more than a set maximum amount annually
Individuals With Disabilities In Education Act (Idea)
A federal law that guarantees the right to a free and appropriate education to disabled students. The IDEA typically requires an individualized education program (IEP) for each disabled child ...
: consisting of one whole whose parts cannot be divided or treated individually [an obligation] in·di·vis·i·bil·i·ty [-vi-zə-bi-lə-tē] n ...
in the civil law of Louisiana : a state of undivided wholeness : state of being owned by two or more co-owners each having an undivided interest in the property as a whole [an estate held in ] [they ...
indorsee indorsement in·dor·s·er var of endorse endorsee endorsement endorser used primarily in the context of the Uniform Commercial Code
1 : factual matter presented by way of introduction or background to explain the principal allegations of a legal cause (as of slander or libel) compare innuendo 2 : a significant offer or act that ...
Industrial Trainee
See Temporary Worker.
Industrial Union
: a labor union that admits to membership workers in an industry regardless of their occupation or craft compare craft union
Ineffective Assistance Of Counsel
:representation of a criminal defendant that is so flawed as to deprive the defendant of a fair trial [claimed ineffective assistance of counsel following his conviction] called also ineffective ...
: contrary to the principles of equity : not fair or just [ conduct] in·eq·ui·ta·bly adv
pl: -ties : injustice ;also : an instance of injustice
Inevitable Accident
: an accident not caused by human negligence compare act of god, force majeure, fortuitous event
Inevitable Discovery
: a doctrine in criminal law: evidence obtained by methods that are unconstitutional may be admissible if it would have been inevitably discovered without the unlawful methods compare fruit of the ...
: of, relating to, or being a crime punishable by imprisonment (as a year or more in a penitentiary) that can lead to loss of rights and privileges upon conviction ;also : convicted of such a crime
pl: -cies 1 : the legal status of an infant : minority 2 : the affirmative defense of lacking legal capacity (as to make a contract or commit a crime) because of being too young and esp. because ...
: a person who is not of the age of majority : minor compare adult
: the killing of a newly or recently born child
in·ferred in·fer·ring vt : to derive as a conclusion from facts or premises [could acceptance of the offer from the offeree's response] vi : to draw inferences in·fer·able ...
1 : the act or process of inferring ;specif : the act of passing from one proposition, statement, or judgment considered as true to another whose truth is believed to follow logically from that of ...
1 : relating to, involving, or resembling inference 2 : deduced or deducible by inference
: by way of inference : through inference
: of lower status, rank, or priority
Inferior Court
: a court that is subordinate to and whose decisions are subject to review by the highest court in a judicial system (as of a state or country) ;specif : a court having limited and specified ...
[Medieval Latin infeudatio, from infeudare to enfeoff, from in- in + feudum feoff] : enfeoffment
: tending to cause anger, animosity, or indignation [the use of an alias by a defendant is…almost always "F. D. Doucette"] NOTE: Evidence, and esp. photographic evidence, may be deemed ...
the number of dollars in circulation exceeds the amount of goods and services available for purchase; inflation results in a decrease in the dollar's value.
Inflation Coverage
endorsement to a homeowner's policy that automatically adjusts the amount of insurance to compensate for inflationary rises in the home's value. This type of coverage does not adjust for increases in ...
Infliction Of Emotional Distress
:the tort of intentionally or negligently causing emotional distress called also infliction of mental distress see also emotional distress
1 a : the act or power of producing an effect without any apparent exertion of force or direct exercise of command b : corrupt interference with authority for personal gain 2 : the power or ...
: marked by the absence of required forms or procedures or by the relaxation of prescribed rules [an hearing]
Informal Agency Action
: an action (as investigation, publicity, or supervision) of an administrative agency that is not adjudication or rulemaking
Informal Application
A trademark application that has been filed without one or more of the elements required to receive a filing date. The USPTO will return informal applications to applicants.
Informal Contract
see contract
Informal Proof Of Claim
:a writing by a creditor that contains a demand for payment of a debt and an intention to hold the debtor's bankruptcy estate liable but that is not in the form prescribed in the Bankruptcy Code for ...
Informal Rulemaking
: rulemaking by a government agency in accordance with the provisions of section 553 of the Administrative Procedure Act called also notice-and-comment rulemaking compare formal rulemaking NOTE: ...
: one who informs against another ;specif : one who makes a practice esp. for money of informing police of others' criminal activities
Informant's Privilege
see privilege
: an instrument containing a formal accusation of a crime that is issued by a prosecuting officer and that serves the same function as an indictment presented by a grand jury compare complaint, ...
Information Letter
see letter
Information Tax Returns
A return that reports the income or loss of a business that is not subject to tax itself (e.g. partnerships, S Corporations, limited liability companies)
Informational Picketing
: picketing by a labor union for the purpose of informing the public about a matter of concern to the union
: based on or made with essential information [an judgment]
Informed Consent
: consent to medical treatment by a patient or to participation in a medical experiment by a subject after achieving an understanding of what is involved and esp. of the risks
: informant
Informer's Privilege
: informant's privilege at privilege
: in the following text : below [see textual discussion accompanying note 22 "D. Q. Posin"] used in books, articles, and cases to refer the reader to later pages, sections, or footnotes of the text ...
: the act of infringing : violation in·fract [-frakt] vt
in·fringed in·fring·ing [Medieval Latin infringere, from Latin, to break, crush, from in- in + frangere to break] vt : to encroach upon in a way that violates law or the rights of ...
: the act or an instance of infringing ;esp : the unauthorized use of copyrighted or patented material or of a trademark, trade name, or trade dress see also equivalent, fair use NOTE: Infringement ...
: forgetfulness of or lack of appreciation for kindness or esp. a gift received NOTE: Under the civil law of Louisiana, a gift may be revoked on the ground of ingratitude if the recipient of the gift ...
1 : the act of entering 2 : the power or liberty of access compare egress
Inherent Defect
: latent defect
Inherently Dangerous
1 : of, relating to, or being an activity or occupation whose nature presents a risk of grave injury without the use of and sometimes despite the use of special skill and care 2 : of, relating to, ...
[Middle French enheriter to make one an heir, from Late Latin inhereditare, from Latin in- in + hereditas inheritance] vt 1 : to receive (property) from an estate by operation of the laws of ...
1 : capable of being inherited 2 : capable of taking by inheritance in·her·i·ta·bil·i·ty [in-her-i-tə-bi-lə-tē] n ...
1 : the act of inheriting: as a : the acquisition of real or personal property under the laws of intestacy or sometimes by will b : the succession upon the death of an owner either by will or by ...
Inheritance Tax
: an excise tax that is levied upon the privilege of receiving property as heir or next of kin under the law of intestacy and that is measured by the value of the property received compare estate tax ...
Initial Appearance
: the first appearance of a criminal defendant before a judge or usually a magistrate called also arraignment on the warrant initial presentment
1 : the esp. introductory series of steps taken to cause a desired result [the deposing party would ordinarily be required to take the in arranging a deposition "Andrews v. Bradshaw, 895 P.2d 973 ...
[Middle French injonction, from Late Latin injunction- injunctio, from Latin injungere to enjoin, from in- in + jungere to join] : an equitable remedy in the form of a court order compelling a party ...
Injunction Bond
see bond
: of or relating to an injunction [granted relief]
in·jured in·jur·ing 1 : to interfere with or violate the legally protected interests of: as a : to harm the physical, emotional, or mental well-being of b : to cause (another) to ...
pl: injurias [Latin, unlawful conduct, unjust treatment] : invasion of another's rights for which one may bring an action
Injuria Absque Damno
[Latin, injury without damage] : a wrong that causes no damage sustaining an action for relief [the lack of a warning label on the electric broom…is at best injuria absque damno "Lee v. Regina ...
: inflicting or tending to inflict injury in·ju·ri·ous·ly adv
Injurious Falsehood
: disparagement
pl: -ries [Latin injuria, from injurus injurious, from in- not + jur- jus right] 1 : an act that wrongs or harms another ;specif : a violation of a legally protected interest (as the physical or ...
1 : absence of justice : violation of what is considered right and just or of the rights of another 2 : an unjust act
Inland Marine Insurance
: insurance against loss of or damage to property transported in domestic commerce, instrumentalities of transport and communication, and personal property compare marine insurance, ocean marine ...
: a person confined in an institution (as a prison or hospital)
: freedom from fault or guilt under the law: as a : the state of not being guilty of a particular crime or offense compare guilt b : the state of not being guilty of an act that constitutes a ...
: characterized by innocence
Innocent Agent
: one who unknowingly, unintentionally, or under force or coercion commits a criminal act on behalf of another
Innocent Misrepresentation
: a representation that is made in good faith and believed to be true by the one making it but that is in fact false
Innocent Party
see party
Innocent Purchaser
: one who purchases property for consideration in good faith and without knowledge of facts that would lead to the suspicion that the seller does not have good title
Innocent Spouse
: a spouse who may be relieved of liability for taxes on an amount of income that the other spouse failed to include on a joint return filed with the Internal Revenue Service NOTE: In order to be ...
in the civil law of Louisiana : having no special name or designation compare nominate
Innominate Contract
see contract
Inns Of Court
1 : the four sets of buildings in London belonging to four societies of students and practitioners of the law 2 : the four societies that alone admit to practice at the English bar
: a parenthetical explanation of the text of a legal document ;esp : an explanation in a complaint for defamation of the defamatory meaning of a statement by the defendant which is not defamatory on ...
[Latin inofficiosus (of a will) ignoring the testator's duty to his relatives, from in- not + officiosus kind, dutiful, from officium service, kindness, duty] : of or relating to a disposition of ...
: having no force or effect [an will]
[Anglo-French enqueste, from Old French, ultimately from Latin inquirere to ask about, from in- within, into + quaerere to seek] 1 : a judicial or official inquiry or examination often before a jury ...
pl: -ries 1 : a request for information [such doubt as would cause a reasonable person to make an ] 2 : a systematic official investigation often of a matter of public interest esp. by a body (as a ...
Inquiry Notice
: implied notice at notice
1 : the act of inquiring or examining 2 : a judicial or official inquiry or examination usually before a jury ;also : the finding that results from such an inquiry
1 : constituting or relating to a system of justice in which the judge conducts an inquiry developing the facts of the litigant's case compare accusatorial, adversary 2 : having the authority to ...
Immigration and Naturalization Service see also the Important Agencies section
: affected with insanity
Insane Delusion
: a false belief in a nonexistent state of facts in which no rational person would believe that deprives a person of the capacity to make a will and renders any will made invalid
1 : unsoundness of mind or lack of the ability to understand that prevents one from having the mental capacity required by law to enter into a particular relationship, status, or transaction or that ...
in·scribed in·scrib·ing : to set down in writing (as the terms of a mortgage) to create a lasting public record in·scrip·tion n
: having a good faith belief that the prospect of receiving payment or performance from a party with whom one has contracted is impaired in·se·cu·ri·ty n
Insecurity Clause
: a clause in an agreement (as a security agreement) allowing a party who deems himself or herself insecure to require immediate payment or performance or the giving of collateral
Inside Information
: information not known to the public that one has obtained by virtue of being an insider called also insider information
: a person who is in a position of power or has access to confidential information: as a : one (as an officer, director, employee, relative, or owner of more than 10% of the corporation's stock) who ...
Insider (Of A Corporate Debtor)
A director, officer, or person in control of the debtor; a partnership in which the debtor is a general partner; a general partner of the debtor; or a relative of a general partner, director, officer, ...
Insider (Of An Individual Debtor)
Any relative of the debtor or of a general partner of the debtor; partnership in which the debtor is a general partner; general partner of the debtor; or a corporation of which the debtor is a ...
Insider Preference
: a transfer of property by a debtor in bankruptcy to an insider made more than ninety days prior to but within one year of the bankruptcy petition
Insider Trader
: one that engages in insider trading
Insider Trading
: the illegal use of esp. material inside information for profit in financial trading see also tippee
pl: -cies 1 : the fact or state of being insolvent compare bankruptcy 2 : insufficiency (as of an estate) to discharge all enforceable debts NOTE: Insolvency matters are covered under the Bankruptcy ...
1 : having ceased paying or unable to pay debts as they fall due in the usual course of business compare bankrupt 2 : having liabilities in excess of a reasonable market value of assets held 3 : ...
1 : to view closely and critically 2 : to examine officially [ the facility for code violations] vi : to make an inspection
: a careful and critical examination: as a : a buyer's examination of goods prior to payment or acceptance esp. in accordance with section 2-513 of the Uniform Commercial Code b : an examination of ...
1 : a person employed or authorized to inspect something 2 : a police officer in charge of a number of precincts and ranking below a superintendent or deputy superintendent
: one of the parts into which a debt is divided when payment is made at intervals installment adj
Installment Contract
see contract
[French, from Late Latin instantia, from Latin, the fact of being present or impending, vehemence in speech, urgency, from instant- instans insistent, pressing, from present participle of instare to ...
: being under present consideration [the questions presented in the case]
-tut·ed -tut·ing 1 : to establish in a particular position or office ;specif in the civil law of Louisiana : to appoint as heir see also instituted heir at heir 2 : to get started : ...
Instituted Heir
see heir
Instituted Legatee
: instituted heir at heir
1 : the act of instituting 2 : a significant practice, relationship, or organization in a society or culture [the of marriage] 3 : an established organization or corporation esp. of a public ...
-ized -iz·ing : to put in the care of an institution compare commit
: to provide (a jury) with explanation and directions regarding the law applicable to a case [the judge ed the jury that the plaintiff bears the burden of proof] [the jury was ed to ignore the ...
Instructed Verdict
see verdict
: an explanation of an applicable principle of law given by a judge to a jury before the jury retires to consider its verdict called also jury charge jury instruction NOTE: Under both the Federal ...
1 : a means or implement by which something is achieved, performed, or furthered [an of crime] 2 : a document (as a deed, will, bond, note, certificate of deposit, insurance policy, warrant, or ...
pl: -ties 1 : something through which an end is achieved or occurs [damages incurred in a single incident through an owned by the employer] 2 : something that serves as an intermediary or agent ...
: capable of or appropriate for being insured against loss, damage, or death : affording a sufficient ground for insurance in·sur·abil·i·ty [in-shr-ə-bi-lə-tē] ...
Insurable Interest
see interest
1 : the action, process, or means of insuring or the state of being insured usually against loss or damage by a contingent event (as death, fire, accident, or sickness) 2 a : the business of ...
Insurance Adjuster
: a person employed by insurer or insured to determine the loss under an insurance policy
Insurance Certificate
1 : a certificate issued by an insurer to a shipper as evidence that a shipment of merchandise is covered under a marine insurance policy 2 : a certificate issued in place of an insurance policy by ...
Insurance Policy
: a writing whereby a contract of insurance is made in which the rights and duties of the insurer and the insured are set out
Insurance Trust
see trust
in·sured in·sur·ing vt : to assure against a loss by a contingent event on certain stipulated conditions or at a given rate of premium : give, take, or procure insurance on or for vi ...
: a person whose life, physical well-being, or property is the subject of insurance
Insured Plan
: a pension or retirement plan managed by an insurance company under which contributions are used to purchase life insurance or annuities as a means of funding the benefits promised
: one that contracts to indemnify another by way of insurance : an insurance company or underwriter
: insurgent rebellion
pl: -cies : the quality or state of being insurgent ;specif : a condition of revolt against a recognized government that does not reach the proportions of an organized revolutionary government and ...
1 : a person who rises in revolt against civil authority or an established government ;esp : one not recognized as a belligerent 2 : one that acts contrary to the established leadership (as of a ...
Insuring Agreement
: the part of an insurance policy setting out in basic terms what the policy covers
Insuring Clause
: a clause in an insurance policy that sets out the risk assumed by the insurer or defines the scope of the coverage afforded
: the act or an instance of revolting esp. violently against civil or political authority or against an established government ;also : the crime of inciting or engaging in such revolt [whoever ...
: of, relating to, or constituting insurrection ;also : given to or tending to induce insurrection
: incapable of being touched : having no physical existence : not tangible or corporeal
Intangible Asset
see asset
Intangible Property
see property
Intangible Tax
: a tax imposed on the privilege of owning, transferring, devising, profiting by, or otherwise dealing with or benefiting from intangibles
-grat·ed -grat·ing vt 1 : to form, coordinate, or blend into a functioning or unified whole 2 : to end the segregation of and bring into equal membership in society or an organization vi ...
1 : composed to form a complete or coordinated entity ;specif : being a final and complete expression of an agreement that cannot be contradicted or modified by extrinsic evidence [an writing] 2 : ...
Integrated Bar
: a bar having compulsory membership of all lawyers practicing in a specific area (as a state) called also unified bar compare voluntary bar
: the act or process or an instance of integrating: as a : a writing that embodies a complete and final agreement between parties b : incorporation as equals into society or an organization of ...
Integration Clause
: a clause in a contract stating that the contract is a complete and final statement of the agreement between the parties
Intellectual Property
see property
: having or indicating a high or satisfactory degree of intelligence and mental capacity ;esp : having or indicating an understanding of the nature and consequences of an act or decision [a knowing ...
: to have in one's mind as a purpose or goal [did not to kill her]
: specifically planned or contemplated [an injury] [ uses] [the beneficiary]
: the true meaning or intention esp. of a law
1 : the act or fact of intending: as a : the design or purpose to commit a wrongful or criminal act called also criminal intent compare knowledge, mens rea, motive, negligence b : the purpose to ...
Intent To Use
Applicants who have not yet used the trademark they wish to register may file an "intent to use" trademark application. An "intent to use" application must include a sworn statement (usually in the ...
: something intended : intent [the of the testator] NOTE: Intent is more commonly used than intention when speaking technically esp. about the criminal and tort concepts of intent (senses 1a and ...
: done with intent [an tort] [ discrimination] in·ten·tion·al·ly adv
Inter Alia
[Latin] : among other things [contends inter alia, that the claim is moot]
Inter Partes
[Latin] : between the parties [a consent decree is not simply a contract inter partes, unlike a settlement] ;specif : having or involving adverse parties [an issue of an invalid application may also ...
Inter Se
[Latin] : among or between themselves [the individual rights or obligations of the parties inter se "Goozh v. Capitol Souvenir Co., 462 A.2d 1140 (1983)"]
Inter Vivos
[Late Latin] : between living persons [an inter vivos transfer] see also donation inter vivos at donation gift inter vivos at gift inter vivos trust at trust compare causa mortis
Inter Vivos Trust
see trust
: to receive (a communication or signal directed elsewhere) usually secretly [shall not be unlawful…for a person acting under color of law to a wire, oral, or electronic communication where ...
1 : something that prohibits 2 : one that has been interdicted compare ward
1 in the civil law of Louisiana : removal of the right to care for one's own person and affairs called also complete interdiction full interdiction compare limited interdiction 2 : the act or an ...
[probably alteration of earlier interesse, from Anglo-French, from Medieval Latin, from Latin, to be between, make a difference, concern, from inter- between, among + esse to be] 1 : a right, title, ...
Interest Arbitration
see arbitration
Interest Rate
the amount of interest charged on a monthly loan payment, expressed as a percentage.
Interest Rate Swap
a transaction between two parties where each agrees to exchange payments tied to different interest rates for a specified period of time, generally based on a notional principal amount.
: having a recognizable interest in a matter compare interest
-fered -fer·ing 1 : to act in a way that impedes or obstructs others 2 : to enter into the concerns of others
1 a : the act or an instance of interfering [ with contract] b : something that interferes 2 : a hearing to determine the priority of invention at issue in a patent dispute
: an intervening time see also ad interim
: reciprocal insurance
Interinsurance Exchange
: reciprocal exchange
: an underwriter of reciprocal insurance
: to be or become mutually connected ;also : to be consistent in regard to major elements [confessions that ]
Interlocking Confession
: a confession of a defendant in a joint trial that agrees in important respects with that of a codefendant NOTE: The use of interlocking confessions at trial can pose difficult problems when a ...
Interlocking Director
: one that serves as a director of two or more corporations at one time
Interlocking Directorate
: a directorate linked with that of another corporation by interlocking directors
[Medieval Latin interlocutorius, from Late Latin interloqui to pronounce an interlocutory sentence, from Latin, to speak between] : not final or definitive [an order] ;broadly : made or done during ...
Interlocutory Appeal
an appeal from a nonfinal, or interlocutory, district court order, such as an injunction. An interlocutory order is issued during litigation of the case in the district court, not at the end of it. ...
Interlocutory Injunction
see injunction
pl: -ar·ies : one that acts as a means or go-between in a matter involving other parties [a reinsurance ] see also learned intermediary intermediary adj
1 : being or occurring at the middle place, stage, or degree or between extremes [an order] 2 : of, relating to, or being a level of judicial scrutiny to ensure equal protection of the laws that is ...
Intermediate Court
: a court (as an appeals court) beneath the court of last resort in a jurisdiction
Intermediate Court Of Appeals
:the court of appeals in Hawaii
Intermediate Term Mortgage
a mortgage loan with a contractual maturity from the time of purchase equal to or less than 20 years.
Internal Law
: the law of a state regulating its internal affairs compare international law, whole law
Internal Revenue Service
The Treasury Department division responsible for collecting taxes.
International Application
Allows a trademark owner to seek registration in any of the countries that have joined the Madrid Protocol by filing a single application.
International Copyright
: a copyright secured by international treaties
International Court Of Justice
The judicial arm of the United Nations. It has jurisdiction to settle legal disputes between nations.
International Jurisdiction
Power of a court or other organization to hear and determine matters between different countries or persons of different countries or foreign states.
International Law
: a body of laws, rules, or legal principles that are based on custom, treaties, or legislation and that control or affect the rights and duties of nations in relation to each other compare internal ...
International Monetary Fund (Imf)
Agency of United Nations established to stabilize international exchange and promote balanced international trade.
International Representative
As a nonimmigrant class of admission, an alien coming temporarily to the United States as a principal or other accredited representative of a foreign government (whether officially recognized or not ...
[Anglo-French enterpleder, from enter- between, among + pleder to plead, from Old French plaidier] vt : to bring (adverse claimants) into court by interpleader [the defendants can injured stock ...
[Anglo-French enterpleder, from enterpleder, verb] : a proceeding by which a person compels parties making the same claim against him or her to litigate the matter between themselves see also bill in ...
Interpol (International Criminal Police Organization)
A coordinating group for international law enforcement.
: to explain or tell the meaning of (as a document) esp. in order to determine intent [they must the provisions of the Constitution "L. H. Tribe"]
: the act or result of interpreting compare construction in·ter·pre·ta·tive [in-tər-prə-tā-tiv, -tə-tiv] adj in·ter·pre·tive ...
Interpretive Rule
: a rule issued by an administrative agency that only clarifies or explains existing laws or regulations called also interpretative rule compare legislative rule NOTE: An interpretive rule does not ...
-gat·ed -gat·ing : to question formally and systematically ;esp : to gather information from (a suspect) by means that are reasonably likely to elicit incriminating responses see also ...
Written questions served by the opposing party that must be answered in writing as part of the discovery process.
pl: -ries : a written question required by law to be answered under the direction of a court ;esp : a written question directed by one party to another regarding information that is within the scope ...
: being between spouses [ gifts]
Interstate Commerce
: commerce, traffic, transportation, and exchange between states of the U.S. see also commerce clause NOTE: While interstate commerce has been narrowly interpreted in judicial decisions in the past, ...
-ven·ed -ven·ing 1 : to occur, fall, or come between points of time or events [may be held liable even though other independent agencies between his negligence and the ultimate result ...
Intervening Cause
see cause
Intervening Force
see force
: the act or an instance of intervening ;specif : the act or procedure by which a third party becomes a party to a pending proceeding between other parties in order to protect his or her own ...
Intervention Of Right
see intervention
pl: -cies 1 : the state of dying intestate : an intestate state or condition [the invalidation of the will resulted in her ] 2 : intestate succession at succession [wills should be construed to ...
[Latin intestatus, from in- not + testatus testate] 1 : having not made a valid will [died ] 2 : not disposed of by a valid will [ property] [an estate] ;specif : transmitted according to statutory ...
Intestate Succession
see succession
-dat·ed -dat·ing 1 : to make timid or fearful ;esp : to compel or deter by or as if by threats see also coercion 2 : to engage in the crime of intimidating (as a witness, juror, public ...
-cat·ed -cat·ing : to excite or stupefy by alcohol or a drug esp. to the point where physical and mental control is markedly diminished see also driving under the influence
1 : the state or condition of being intoxicated 2 : a defense based on inability to form the requisite specific intent to commit a crime due to intoxication
Intra Vires
[New Latin] : within the powers [a corporate director acting intra vires] compare ultra vires
1 : within [intrastate] 2 : during [intraday]
Intracompany Transferee
An alien, employed for at least one continuous year out of the last three by an international firm or corporation, who seeks to enter the United States temporarily in order to continue to work for the ...
: occurring in the course of a single day [the financing practices of Government securities dealers "Federal Register"]
: existing within a state [interstate and commerce]
: belonging to the essential nature or constitution of a thing
Intrinsic Evidence
see evidence
Intrinsic Fraud
see fraud
-duced -duc·ing : to present and offer (evidence) at trial
in·trud·ed in·trud·ing vi 1 : to enter by intrusion 2 : encroach [a search that s on a person's privacy] vt : to encroach on or upon without permission or right ...
1 a : the entry at common law of a stranger after a particular estate of freehold is determined before the person who holds it in remainder or reversion has taken possession b : the act of ...
: characterized by intrusion in·tru·sive·ly adv in·tru·sive·ness n
var of entrust
in·ured in·ur·ing : to become of advantage usually used in the phrase inure to the benefit of
in·vad·ed in·vad·ing 1 : to encroach upon : infringe [invading a constitutional right] 2 : to make payments out of (a fund from which payments are not ordinarily made) ...
: being without force or effect under the law [declared the will ] in·val·id·ly adv
: to make or declare invalid [the high court invalidating the statute] in·val·i·da·tion [in-va-lə-dā-shən] n
: lack of validity : state of being invalid
: the act of or an instance of invading
Invasion Of Privacy
:the tort of unjustifiably intruding upon another's right to privacy by appropriating his or her name or likeness, by unreasonably interfering with his or her seclusion, by publicizing information ...
in·vei·gled in·vei·gling : to lure by false representations or other deceit [whoever unlawfully…s, decoys, kidnaps, abducts, or carries away and holds for ransom or reward ...
: to create or produce for the first time in·ven·tor n
: a device, process, or discovery under U.S. patent law that is new and useful, that reflects extraordinary creative ability or skill, and that makes a distinct and recognized contribution to and ...
pl: -ries 1 : an itemized list of current assets: as a : a written list or catalog of the property of an individual, organization, or estate or succession that is made by a fiduciary under oath and ...
Inventory Financing
The process of obtaining capital for a business by borrowing money with inventory used as collateral
Inventory Search
see search
Inverse Condemnation
: an action brought against the government by a landowner to obtain just compensation for a taking of property effected without a formal exercise of eminent domain ;also : the taking alleged in such ...
[Medieval Latin investire, from Latin, to clothe, from in- in + vestis garment] 1 : to install in an office or position 2 a : to furnish with or formally grant power or authority b : to grant ...
-gat·ed -gat·ing vt : to observe or study by close examination and systematic inquiry ;specif : to make (a criminal suspect) the subject of inquiry and study for the purpose of ...
Investigative Stop
: terry stop
1 : the act of establishing in office or ratifying 2 : livery of seisin
: investiture
Investment Company
see company
Investment Contract
see contract
Investment Income
: income (as interest, dividends, annuities, or royalties) that is not derived in the ordinary course of a trade or business
Investment Trust
see trust
: of, relating to, or being discrimination that arises from the creation of a classification that is arbitrary, irrational, or capricious and not related to a legitimate purpose ...
Invited Error
see error
: an invited person ;specif : a person (as a customer) who is present in a place by the express or implied invitation of the occupier in control of the place under circumstances that impose a duty ...
1 : a calling upon for authority or justification 2 : an act of legal implementation [an of the contract clause]
1 : an itemized statement furnished to a purchaser by a seller and usually specifying the price of goods or services and the terms of sale : bill 2 : a consignment of merchandise
in·voked in·vok·ing 1 : to appeal to as furnishing authority or motive 2 : to put into legal effect or call for the observance of : enforce [invoking his Fifth Amendment privilege] ...
: done, made, or initiated contrary to or without one's choice [an confession] [an lien] [an plaintiff joined in the action] in·vol·un·tar·i·ly adv
Involuntary Bailment
see bailment
Involuntary Bankruptcy
: bankruptcy declared upon petition of creditors see also bankruptcy
Involuntary Conversion
see conversion
Involuntary Dismissal
see dismissal
Involuntary Dissolution
see dissolution
Involuntary Lien
see lien
Involuntary Manslaughter
see manslaughter
Involuntary Trust
see trust
Interest on Lawyers' Trust Accounts
Ip Address
A set of four numbers separated by periods, each between 0 and 255, which uniquely identifies an address on a network. See Static / Dynamic IP Address.
Ipso Facto
[New Latin, literally, by the fact itself] : by that very fact or act : as an inevitable result [drove the getaway car and was ipso facto an accessory]
Ipso Facto Clause
: a clause in an agreement stipulating the consequences (as termination of a lease or acceleration of a payment) of the insolvency of one of the parties called also bankruptcy clause ipso facto ...
Ipso Jure
[Latin] : by the law itself : by the operation of law [the securities sale was ipso jure unlawful]
[individual retirement account] : an account in which a person may deposit up to a stipulated amount each year and that is not taxable until retirement or early withdrawal NOTE: Deposits to an IRA ...
See Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986.
: not rational: as a : not governed by reason, mental clarity, or understanding b : not governed by a fair consideration of facts or evidence ;broadly : arbitrary [an decision to deny the permit] ...
Irrebuttable Presumption
: conclusive presumption at presumption
Irreconcilable Differences
: substantial incompatibility between marriage partners that is a broad ground for esp. no-fault divorce compare irretrievable breakdown of the marriage
: not in accord with laws, rules, procedures, or established custom ir·reg·u·lar·ly adv
Irregular Heir
see heir
pl: -ties : something that is irregular [an in the proceeding]
1 : the quality or state of being irrelevant 2 : something that is irrelevant
pl: -cies : irrelevance
: not relevant : not applicable or pertinent [ allegations] [ evidence] compare immaterial ir·rel·e·vant·ly adv
: impossible to remedy, correct, or redress [ harm] [ conduct] ir·re·me·di·a·bly adv
Irremediable Breakdown Of The Marriage
:irretrievable breakdown of the marriage
: impossible to repair, remedy, or undo ir·rep·a·ra·bly adv
Irreparable Injury
: serious injury to a party that justifies relief esp. by preliminary injunction called also irreparable damage irreparable harm NOTE: Typical irreparable injury is not remediable by monetary ...
Irresistible Force
see force
Irresistible Impulse
: an overpowering impulse produced by mental disease or defect that leads to the commission of a criminal act (as murder)
Irresistible Impulse Test
: a test used in some jurisdictions when considering an insanity defense that involves a determination of whether an impulse to commit a criminal act was irresistible due to mental disease or defect ...
: not reversible [an decision]
: not capable of being revoked [the offer was for ten days] ir·rev·o·ca·bil·i·ty n ir·rev·o·ca·bly adv
Irrevocable Letter Of Credit
see letter of credit
Irrevocable Power Of Attorney
see power of attorney
Irrevocable Trust
see trust
Internal Revenue Service see also the Important Agencies section
1 : open to contest, debate, or litigation [an fact] ;also : made on the merits and subject to dispute [an plea] [an defense] 2 : authorized for issue [bonds under the merger terms]
: the act or an instance of issuing [the of the injunction was upheld]
1 pl : proceeds from a source of revenue (as an estate) [rents, s, and profits] 2 : one or more lineal descendants [died without ] compare child, heir 3 a : a vital question or problem [cited a ...
Issue Of Fact
see issue
Issue Of Law
see issue
Issue Preclusion
: estoppel by judgment at estoppel
1 : a distinct part in an enumeration, account, or series 2 : a financial instrument (as a check or draft)
: the act of itemizing ;also : an itemized list
-ized -iz·ing : to list in detail or by particulars [ deductions]
Itemized Deduction
see deduction
Itemized Deductions
Expenditures that the tax code deems appropriate for reducing adjusted gross income.
Immigrant Visa
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